Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal logo SOERE PRO Logo CIRAD Logo AnaEE Logo IRD Logo Ouagadougou university

Home page

Lasting effect of repeated application of organic waste products on microbial communities in arable soils

S. Sadet-Bourgeteau (a), S. Houot (b), S. Dequiedt (c), V. Nowak (a), V. Tardy (a), S. Terrat (a), D. Montenach (d), V. Mercier (b), B. Karimi (a), N. Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré (a), P.A. Maron (a)

Sadet-Bourgeteau & al., 2018
Sadet-Bourgeteau & al., Applied Soil Ecology Volume 125, April 2018, Pages 278-287

Intensive agricultural practices contribute to a decrease in soil organic matter content, with negative consequences on soil fertility [1]. One way to reverse this degradation in soil fertility is to increase soil organic matter content by applying organic amendments [2] which at the same time could contribute to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and thus indirectly climate change [3]. Among the different organic inputs, organic waste products (OWP) resulting from human activity are being increasingly used because they facilitate the recycling of nutrients and improve soil fertility. Yet, OWP application changes soil physico-chemical properties [4] and consequently impact the soil microbial communities. The objective was to study the lasting effect on soil microbial communities of repeated OWP application over several years.

Main results

Previous research suggests that a single OWP application has a transient impact on the abundance and diversity of soil microbial communities[5]. However, it was observed that repeated fertilization over several years, a commonly used practice under field conditions to maintain soil fertility and thus crop yields, had more persistent impact on soils characteristics [6] and microbial diversity and activity[7,8]. So, the lasting effect on soil microbial communities of repeated OWP application over several years needs further investigation. In this study, the effects of OWP on soil prokaryotic and fungal communities were assessed on two long-term fields experiments (QualiAgro and PROspective). Different types of OWP characterized by more or less stable organic matter had been applied for more than 10 years. At QualiAgro, the carbon inputs due to OWP application were greater (∼4tCha−1 every two years) than at PROspective (∼1.7 t C ha−1 every two years). On both sites, soil samples were taken more than six months after the last OWP input. At QualiAgro, soil organic carbon, N and P2O5 concentrations, pH, and CEC were increased by repeated OWP inputs, as compared to the control. Soil microbial community parameters were also lastingly affected by OWP application. A 50% increase in microbial biomass was observed with OWP with the most stable organic matter contents (Figure 1).

Fig.1 Sadet-Bourgeteau 2018

Figure 1: Effect of different organic waste products on soil microbial biomass from QualiAgro (A) and PROspective (B).

The prokaryotic community structure was influenced: directly by the OWP applied, and indirectly by soil properties changes. Soil pH appeared as a major driver for structure of the soil prokaryotic community. Fungal community structure was only directly influenced by the OWP applied. Contrastingly, at PROspective, OWP application had no impact on soil chemical characteristics or microbial communities’ parameters. This was probably due to the smaller amount of OWP applied than at QualiAgro, and/or a longer delay between the OWP application and soil sampling. Altogether, our results show that, depending on its type, the applied OWP could produce a lasting increase in soil microbial biomass and shape microbial community structure.


1. Tate, R.L., 1987. Soil Organic Matter: Biological and Ecological Effects, New York, USA.

2. Peltre, C., Christensen, B.T., Dragon, S., Icard, C., Kätterer, T., Houot, S., 2012. RothC simulation of carbon accumulation in soil after repeated application of widely different organic amendments. Soil Biol. Biochem. 52, 49–60.

3. Lal, R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123, 1–22.

4. Chalhoub, M., Garnier, P., Coquet, Y., Mary, B., Lafolie, F., Houot, S., 2013. Increased nitrogen availability in soil after repeated compost applications: use of the PASTIS model to separate short and long-term effects. Soil Biol. Biochem. 65, 144–157.

5. Bastida, F., Hernández, T., Albaladejo, J., García, C., 2013. Phylogenetic and functional changes in the microbial community of long-term restored soils under semiarid climate. Soil Biol. Biochem. 65, 12–21.

6. Körschens, M., Albert, E., Armbruster, M., Barkusky, D., Baumecker, M., Behle-Schalk, L., Bischoff, R., Čergan, Z., Ellmer, F., Herbst, F., 2013. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, carbon and nitrogen balances, as well as soil organic carbon content and dynamics: results from 20 European long-term field experiments of the twenty-first century. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 59, 1017–1040.


a INRA, UMR, 1347 Agroecologie, AgroSup Dijon, Dijon, France

b INRA, UMR, 1402 Ecosys Ecologie fonctionnelle et Ecotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes, Thiverval-Grignon, France

c INRA, Genosol Plateform, Dijon, France

d INRA, UE 0871 Service d'expérimentation Agronomique et Viticole, Colmar, France