Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal logo SOERE PRO Logo CIRAD Logo AnaEE Logo IRD Logo Ouagadougou university

Home page

Modelling the long-term effect of urban waste compost applications on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in temperate cropland

P.E. Noirot-Cosson, E. Vaudour, J.M. Gilliot, B. Gabrielle, S. Houot

Noirot-Cosson & al., 2016
Noirot-Cosson & al., Soil Biology and Biochemistry Volume 94, March 2016, Pages 138-153

The recycling in agriculture of Exogenous Organic Matter (EOM) issued from organic waste treatment is a promising way to restore soil organic matter (SOM) content in intensively managed soils. EOM applications to crop fields may also be used as substitute to synthetic fertilizers. These EOM have variable efficiencies at increasing SOC and enhancing N availability, depending especially on their biochemical characteristics and C and N contents [1] and on the pedo-climatic context of their application. The objectives were to study the effect of different EOM applications on C and N dynamics, in order to predict the C storage, the increase in N availability for crops and plant response and finally the N leaching risk by using a mechanistic model.

Main results

Low level of soil organic matter (SOM) in cropped soils has become a worldwide threat for soil sustainability, notably in Europe [2]. Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) content may contribute to the carbon (C) storage into soils and the mitigation of climate change [3] while improving soil properties, therefore enhanced crop productivity [4]. One strategy to increase SOC is amending soils with exogenous organic matter (EOM) defined as organic residues issued from agriculture (manures, litters, slurries), from urban activities (sewage sludge, bio-waste composts, green waste composts), or from industries [5].

The CERES-EGC mechanistic model was used to simulate the effects of repeated applications of urban waste composts and manure over 13 years on both soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the soil-crop-water-air system of the long-term field experiment QualiAgro (figure 1).

Fig.1 Noirot-Cosson 2016

Figure 1: Schematic overview of the parameterisation methodology. NLR stands for Non-Linear-Regressions. Nmin and Nopt correspond to the minimal and optimal level of mineral fertilisation in the field experiment. PII stands for soil pool II, r and l for resistant and labile EOM pool. C, CN and k, the size, C/N ratio and decomposition rate of these pools, TOC the soil Total Organic Carbon content and CNTOC its associated C/N ratio. Till was set to 0 for field-scale and to 16% for lab-scale simulations.

Several EOMs were considered: farmyard manure, FYM; municipal solid waste compost, MSW; bio-waste compost, BIO; a co-compost of green waste and sewage sludge, GWS. Each EOM application brought the equivalent of 220-400 kg N ha-1. The sub-model NCSOIL was parameterized from C and N mineralization kinetics of EOMs measured during incubations of soil-EOM mixtures in controlled conditions. The simulation correctly reproduced the experimental kinetics. When transposing these parameters into the CERES-EGC model, C storage at the field scale was well simulated (figure 2), together with crop N uptake and yields, as well as soil mineral N contents despite a slight overestimation.

Fig.2 Noirot-Cosson 2016

Figure 2 :  Evolution of Soil Organic Carbon Content (mg C kg-1 soil), simulated (line) and measured (dots) in the different treatments of the Qualiagro field experiment. The rate of C storage i.e. slope of measured trend is expressed in mg C kg-1 yr-1.

The GWS compost generated the highest C storage over the 13 y-period and MSW the lowest with 65% and 36% of the Exogenous Organic Carbon (EOC) applied incorporated into the soil organic C, respectively. The GWS and MSW had the highest potential of N loss because of high mineral N content and a high potential of N mineralization, respectively in contrast to FYM and BIO. MSW had also the highest apparent N use efficiency (48.8%) thanks to a high potential of mineralization (76.3% of organic N applied). The achieved CERES-EGC parameterization offers promising prospects for predicting the effects of a larger panel of EOMs, and for further using this soil-plant-water-atmosphere model to manage EOM application practices at the regional scale in compliance with crop production and environmental aims.


1. Peltre, C., Christensen, B.T., Dragon, S., Icard, C., Katterer, T., Houot, S., 2012. RothC simulation of carbon accumulation in soil after repeated application of widely different organic amendments. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 52, 49-60.

2. Ciais, P., Wattenbach, M., Vuichard, N., Smith, P., Piao, S.L., Don, A., Luyssaert, S., Janssens, I.A., Bondeau, A., Dechow, R., Leip, A., Smith, P., Beer, C., Van Der Werf, G.R., Gervois, S., Van Oost, K., Tomelleri, E., Freibauer, A., Schulze, E.D., Carboeurope Synthesis Team, 2010. The European carbon balance. Part 2: croplands. Global Change Biology 16, 1409-1428.

3. Lal, R., Follett, F., Stewart, B.A., Kimble, J.M., 2004b. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security. Soil Science 304, 1623-1627.

4. Lal, R., Griffin, M., Apt, J., Lave, L., Morgan, M., 2004a. Managing soil carbon. Science 304, 393.

5. Marmo, L., Feix, I., Bourmeau, E., Amlinger, F., Bannick, C.G., De Neve, S., Favoino, E., Gendebien, A., Gibert, J., Givelet, M., Leifert, I., Morris, R., Rodriguez Cruz, A., Ruck, F., Siebert, S., Tittarelli, F., 2004. Taskgroup 4 Exogenous Organic Matter. In: Reports of the Technical Working Groups Established under the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, vol. 3.


UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Universit e Paris-Saclay, 78850, Thiverval-Grignon, France

See also

Houot, S., Pons, M.-N., Pradel, M., Caillaud, M.-A., Savini, I., Tibi, A., 2014. Valorisation des matières fertilisantes d'origine résiduaire sur les sols à usage agricole ou forestier. Impacts agronomiques, environnementaux, socio-économiques. Expertise scientifique collective. INRA-CNRS-Irstea. Synthèse. 113 pp. Expertise-Mafor-effluents-boues-et-dechets-organiques#.