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OTCs levels in harvests

Phthalates and LAS are the most abundant OTCs in harvests. Concentrations are in the order of hundreds of µg/kg DM. Only naphthalene is detected in PAHs at a trace level, at around 1 µg/kg DM. PCBs are not detected. Nonylphenol was only detected in 2004 in wheat. For all TOCs, no effect from the spreadings was observed.

The harvests have been analysed since 2004: wheat in 2004 and 2006, maize in 2005. TOC concentrations in the grains are shown in Figure 1.

CTO-Ble-Mais

Figure 1. OTC concentrations (µg/kg DM) in wheat in 2004 and maize in 2005 (n=4, 4 plots per treatment). NAP = naphthalene, QL = quantification limit (1 µg/kg DM for NAP and 100µg/kg DM for NP). PCBs are not detected in either wheat or maize.

 

The average concentrations in the three harvests (two wheat and one maize) are 840 µg/kg DM for DIBP, 690 µg/kg DM for LAS, 180 µg/kg DM for DEHP, 100 µg/kg DM for DBP and 1 µg/kg DM for NAP. Nonylphenol (NP) is only detected in one year for wheat (2004) at nearly 100 µg/kg DM, which is the quantification limit. PCBs are never detected in the harvests (<1 µg/kg DM). Wheat shows higher concentrations than maize.
No effect from the input of OWPs is visible in the harvests. In addition, concentrations in the harvests are not linked with OTCs concentrations in the soil: the most abundant TOCs in the soil are not the most abundant in the harvests (e.g. PAH). TOCs in the plants could come from sources other than the soil and OWPs, such as the atmosphere and plant protection products. A plant protection product analysis campaign is being carried out to verify this hypothesis. To determine the impact of atmospheric effects, it would be necessary to monitor dry and humid atmospheric effects.
The concentrations measured are within the limits and recommendations for foodstuffs.