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OTC levels and flows via the spreading of OWPs

The most abundant OTCs in the OWPs are phthalates and LAS, in the order of tens and hundreds of mg/kg DM. Total PAHs concentrations amount to a few mg/kg DM and those of PCBs less than 1 mg/kg DM. Flows of PAHs and PCBs make up less than 5% of the stock in the soil. Meanwhile, phthalate and LAS flows are higher than the stock present in the soil.

TOC levels in ROPs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates (DIBP, DBP, DEHP, DiNP, DiDP), linear alkyl benzene sulphonates (LAS) and NEPs (nonylphenols) were monitored in the OWPs, soils and plants.
The TOC levels are shown in Figure 1.

Fig1.CTO
Figure 1. OTC levels in the distributed OWPs from 1998 to 2006 for PAHs and PCBs (n = 5) and from 2002 to 2006 for other OTCs (n=3).

Les phtalates (DIBP, DBP, DINP, DIDP) sont les substances qui présentent les concentrations les plus élevées, dans les composts d'OMR et de DVB (jusqu'à 458 mg / kg MS. Leur présence dans les composts s'explique par leur présence dans les déchets bruts des OMR et dans les boues de station d'épuration. Les LAS sont ensuite assez abondants jusqu'à près de 40 mg/kg dans le compost de DVB et près de 7 mg/kg MS dans le compost d'OMR. Comme pour les phtalates, leur présence dans les composts s'explique par leur présence dans les déchets bruts et les boues.
Les HAP et les PCB présentent des concentrations plus faibles, inférieures à 5 mg/kg MS pour les HAP et inférieures à 0,2 mg/kg MS pour les PCB (somme des composés). Les différences entre les composts sont moins marquées que pour les phtalates et les LAS. L'ordre des concentrations est : FUM < OMR < DVB < BIO pour les HAP. Celui  des PCB est FUM < BIO < DVB < OMR.
Les nonylphenols (NP, NPE1O et NPE2O) n'ont été détectés qu'une année à des concentrations égales à la limite de quantification du laboratoire (0,1 mg/kg MS) dans tous les PRO, excepté dans l'OMR où la concentration était 30 fois supérieure.

Phthalates (DIBP, DBP, DINP, DIDP) are the substances with the highest concentrations in the MSW and GWS composts (up to 458 mg/kg DM). Their presence in the composts is due to their presence in the raw waste in MSW and in the sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Next, LAS are fairly abundant, at up to nearly 40 mg/kg in GWS compost and nearly 7 mg/kg DM in MSW compost. As with phthalates, their presence in the composts is due to their presence in raw waste and sludge.
PAHs and PCBs show lower concentrations, of less than 5 mg/kg DM for PAHs and less than 0.2 mg/kg DM for PCBs (sum of the compounds). The differences between the composts are less pronounced than in the case of phthalates and LAS. The order of the concentrations is: FYM < MSW < GWS < BIO for PAHs. The order for PCBs is FYM < BIO < GWS < MSW.
Nonylphenols (NP, NPE1O and NPE2O) were only detected during one year at concentrations equal to the laboratory's quantification limit (0.1 mg/kg DM) in all OWPs, except in MSW, where the concentration was 30 times higher.
 

PAHs and PCBs profiles

Four-ring PAHs account for 35% to 56% of the sum of the 16 PAHs. These are the most abundant congeners in the GWS and BIO composts and in manure. In MSW compost, 3-ring PAHs represent the highest proportion (43% of the sum of PAHs). 4-ring PAHs in the MSW compost represent 35% of total PAHs. For all OWPs, fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene, individually, show the highest concentrations.

Of the 7 PCBs, the PCBs of chlorination degree 5 and 6 are the most abundant. They represent 23% to 50% of the total of PCBs. Individually, PCBs 153, 138 and 28 show the highest concentrations.

OTC flows via the spreading of OWPs

The average flows of the sum of the 16 PAHs range from 10 to 70 g/ha/2 years, depending on the OWP. The flows of the sum of the 7 PCBs range from 0.2 to 2 g/ha/2 years. Of the phthalates, the flow of DEHP is between 7 and 10 g/ha/2 years for BIO compost and manure. This flow increases to 193 and 4,648 g/ha/2 years for the GWS and MSW composts. LAS flows range from 4 to 60 g/ha/2 years for all OWPs, except in the case of GWS compost, for which the flow is 730 g/ha/2 years. NP flows range from less than 1 g/ha/year to 20 g/ha/2 years.
The flows of the sum of the 16 PAHs and 7 PCBs respectively represent 1% to 6% and less than 1.5% of the initial stock in the soil. For other OTCs there were no measurements in the soil at the start of the test. These measurements were performed in 2006 and the OTCs were detected at a trace level. For other OTCs, the flows during spreadings are higher than the stocks in the soil.
The flows of the 16 PAHs during the spreadings is higher than the flow brought by rains. The flow measured in rains is 0.12 g/ha/year (for 383 mm of rain, 2005 measurement). The other OTCs are not measured in the rain. However, the flows via spreadings are higher than the atmospheric flows in data from the literature.