Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal agroParistech cnrs ird ANR


WP5 - Improvement of CERES-NOE

WP5 - Improvement of CERES-NOE

WP5 has 3 steps:

WP5-1 Improvement of CERES-NOE, CN-Vsoil using effective functions and/or simple models of WP4

Raia Massad, Patricia Garnier, Catherine HénaultJoel Daroussin JR de Dreuzy, 6 Months IE

CERES and CN-Vsoil models simulate the decomposition of organic matter, nitrogen dynamics and N2O fluxes (Lehuger et al. 2009) in soil. All these models use macroscopic functions that alter the microbial dynamics such as a function of humidity, temperature, availability of nitrogen, and an empirical function for contact between microbial biomass and organic matter (see Garnier et al., 2003, Moyano et al., 2013) but they do not consider micro-heterogenity descriptors. These models will be modified to take into account the influence of the microscopic heterogeneity in the soil. The outputs of WP4, i.e. effective parameters or functions and/or simple compartment models able to consider the microscopic distribution from descriptors, will be used for this and will lead to changes in existing functions, to the addition of new functions, ,or even to changes in the structure of the traditional models. This step will be done in close collaboration with the actors of WP4 by a contractual IE (6 months, located in Orleans)

WP5 -2 Test of the improved models in field

Raia Massad, Patricia Laville, Patricia Garnier, Catherine Hénault, Claire Chenu, 6 months of Phd 1

A comparison of initial models with improved ones will be carried out to test the improvements against experimental data. This comparison will be done using existing databases collected on different field experiments, with soils of contrasting textures and structures: 

-           For loamy soils (from 60 to 75% silt) we will have access to results obtained on the experimental field ICOS of Grignon (Laville et al., 2011, Loubet et al., 2011), and the landscape site (INGOS-OS²) located in Center Region (Gu et al., 2011 ; 2014 ; Grossel et al., 2014) which is used in the ANR-Escapade project ( In these field sites, GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) have been registered periodically using accumulation chambers. All other field data are also available (climatic data, soil properties,…). Furthermore, the experimental site of La Cage, at Versailles, from which most soil samples of our project will come, has been equipped in 2014 with accumulation chambers to record the emissions of CO2 and N2O, within the PhD project of B. Autret (P.I B. Mary , INRA). A specific collaboration is being discussed to test our models against their field data, as much information will be available from this project, regarding the microstructural components of the soils and the spatial variability of CO2 and NO2 emissions at the aggregate to core scale (see WP1). Both conventional tilled and no tillage with permanent plant coverage plots will be considered, in order to take advantage of the observed  differences in soil structure and soil organic C content (Juarez 2013).

-           For sandy soils (from 75 to 85%): The experimental site Ardon located in Orléans (Center Region), cultivated with soybeans, has been recently equipped with chambers to measure N2O. All other field data will be also available (climatic data, soil properties,…).


-           Field scale models of soil CO2 and N2O emissions able to consider µ-heterogeneity of soils at the field scale;

-           Test of these “improved” soil models with experimental field data.