Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech Université Paris-Saclay UVSQ ANSES CNRS ENVA

Home page

How can the analysis of the genome change how patients with azoospermia are managed?

@BREED (Results of the immunohistochemical analysis of the MEI1 protein in the seminiferous tubules from a control (A) and a carrier patient (A’) in the homozygous state of a pathogenic variant  of the gene C11ORF80)
This study which was published in Human Reproduction evaluated the relevancy of Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) in patients for which a first testicuar biopsy was performed, showing a homogenous blocage of sperm maturation during prophase I of meiosis.

Azoospermia is the extreme form of male infertility due to the absence of sperm in the semen. In order to help couples become parents, it is necessary to do a testicular biopsy to retrieve live spermatozoa that can later be used for in vitro fertilization with intra cytoplasmic micro-injection or ICSI. However, this is an invasive surgical operation with a potential deleterous long-term effect due to a testosterone deficit. Even though the chances of finding live spermatozoa is high, close to 95% for obstructive azoospermia and 40% if the defect comes from the testicules and is non-obstructive. However, today no clinical and/or biological criteria exist that allow the evaluation of the chances to find spermatozoa in the latter situation.

A study published in Human Reproduction evaluated the relevancy of Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) analysis in patients for which a first testicular biopsy had been performed, revealing a homogenous blockage in sperm maturation during prophase I of meiosis. Scientists from the Reproductive, Environmental, Epigenetic and Developmental Biology Unit (BREED (UVSQ/UPSaclay, Poissy)) showed that after validation by immunohistochemistry, that this approach was more relevant than Target Sequencing (TS), with a genetic cause identified that explains the testicular phentoype in more than 50% of the patients and 100% inbred patients. In addition, these preliminary results showed that this analysis provides arguments to avoid performing a 2nd testicular biopsy in these patients, or even a 1st biopsy in inbred patients, and this despite interpretation problems and so-called incidental findings generated by this analysis.

Contacts :

See also

F Ghieh, A L Barbotin, N Swierkowski-Blanchard, C Leroy, J Fortemps, C Gerault, C Hue, H Mambu Mambueni, S Jaillard, M Albert, M Bailly, V Izard, D Molina-Gomes, F Marcelli, J Prasivoravong, V Serazin, M N Dieudonne, M Delcroix, H J Garchon, A Louboutin, B Mandon-Pepin, S Ferlicot, F Vialard, Whole-exome sequencing in patients with maturation arrest: a potential additional diagnostic tool for prevention of recurrent negative testicular sperm extraction outcomes, Human Reproduction, 2022;, deac057,