Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institutions

SPS - Saclay Plant Sciences


3 questions to Benoît Castandet
Benoit Castandet

Benoît Castandet is an Assistant Professor at the Paris-Diderot University and develops his research at the Institute of Plant Sciences of Paris-Saclay (IPS2, Orsay). After defending his PhD in 2010 at the University of Bordeaux 2 he became a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Prof. David Stern at the Boyce Thompson Institute, an independent affiliate of Cornell University (Ithaca). He was recruited to the “Organellar gene expression” team of IPS2 in October 2017.

1) What are your current research themes?

My research focuses on the gene expression of the two organelles performing cellular respiration and photosynthesis, the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. A plant cell is the result of billion years of co-evolution between three different genetic compartments, the nucleus, the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. A consequence of this co-evolution is that organelle physiology now requires the coordinated expression of proteins encoded both in the nuclear and organellar genomes. My aim is to understand how this coordination is achieved by the plant cell and how it is regulated (if indeed it is!). To do so, I use plants at different developmental stages or under various stresses along with a combination of genomics, bioinformatics and statistics. The goal is to identify genes and proteins involved in organelle biology and the main regulatory factors involved in the coordination of gene expression between the cell compartments.

2) Why did you choose plants as your research subject?

I did not really choose plants, they just became obvious to me. To be honest, the evocation of the thale cress never brought any stars in my eyes.  I was just really interested in organellar genomes and plants have two of them. Plus, their genome is far more complex and interesting than the dismal animal mitochondria one (at least in my mind!).

3) What is the place of plant sciences in your teaching?

I’m an assistant professor in plant physiology so, as you can guess, plant science is predominant in my teaching! It’s true that too often classes are almost exclusively illustrated with examples coming from animals. Part of my role is to convince students that plants are living organisms just like any other.