Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

PVY Organization

Zone de texte éditable et éditée

Molecular tools

Detection and characterization of molecular identities of PVY isolates

Genetic differences between viral genomes can be used as specific targets for molecular detection and identification of PVY isolates. A common feature of any molecularly-based detection tool corresponds to specific hybridization of probes and/or primers on the targeted nucleotide sequence(s). Such hybridization steps can be used to detect the presence of the target(s) (e.g. radiolabelled primers/probes, Southern or northern blots, DNA chips) or to amplify (RT-PCR) part of the targeted nucleic acids. Then, the amplified fragments can be observed on agarose gel under UV irradiations in the presence of ethidium bromide.
For few years, fluorescent-based techniques have been developed for PVY detection. Such methods have improved the sensitivity and/or specificity of previously published molecular tools against this plant virus. The recent identification of PVY molecular determinant linked to the necrosis ability of some viral isolates has offered, in association with previously published neutral markers, the possibility to set up new series of innovative molecular tools for the detection (FRIT’N SNP test), the quantification (FRIT’N real time assays) and the characterization (FRIT’N SNaPshot test) of PVY isolates belonging to the different groups and variants. These FRIT’N tests will be extensively used by the “PVYwide Organization” to analyse and characterize the world-wide collection of PVY isolates.

The qualitative “FRIT’N SNP” detection uses a single nucleotide polymorphism to identify in tested samples isolates belonging to the PVYN or PVYO groups.

Icone SNP_Eng(1)


The “FRIT’N Real time” quantification procedures require the use of two independent assays for the specific quantification of PVYN and PVYO isolates.

The “FRIT’N SNaPshot” characterization of PVY isolates and their assignment in the PVY groups (PVYN and PVYO) and variants (PVYN-W and PVYNTN) depends on the identity of four polymorphic nucleotides.