Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

PVY Organization

Zone de texte éditable et éditée


Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology

With about 120 employees, National Institute of Biology (NIB) is the largest independent Public Research Institution for Life Sciences in Slovenia.The Institute was established by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia in 1960.

The basic activity of the Institute has been and continues to be basic, developmental and applicative research in the fields of biotechnology, biophysics, biomedicine and system biology

NIB research programmes take place within the Department of Organisms and Ecosystems ResearchDepartment of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology and Marine Biological Station, and focus on topics ranging from viruses, plant and animal species to humans and their environment. Since 2000, NIB holds the quality management standard ISO 9001:2000 and has acquired the Good Laboratory Practice certificate according to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard in 2003.


Vision: We wish to create elite knowledge and technologies in the field of life sciences and their environments as an internationally renowned autonomous institution. We will be taking care of the satisfaction and education of top-level personnel through good organization and state-of-the-art equipment. We will ensure our long-term development in close association with the society and the business sector


Prof. Dr. Maja Ravnikar (Head of the team)

Maya Ravnikar


Tel.: 386 (0)59 232 801




We are dedicated to the research and diagnostics of mostly plant, but also human viruses. We study their epidemiology, host interaction and transmission routes, giving special emphasis to the water as such as route.

We also provide services to industry, on detection, characterization and quantification of viruses.

Regarding PVY we are actively involved on its research from different points of view. We study the interaction of PVY with its hosts using system biology tools. We have also improved its diagnostics using novel tools such as LAMP, qPCR, ddPCR and NGS. We have visualized the movement of PVY through the plant using a PVY GFP infective clone, and recently we are researching the evolution of PVY populations (quasispecies) using NGS and bioinformatics tools.

Recent main projects funded in the field include several national and international projects, for example :

  • ARIMNet Emeramb (EU) : Emerging viruses and virus vectors in mediterranean basin crops
  • ARRS PVY Interactions (Slovenian research agency) : Insights into the protein interactions involved in the Potato virus Y Potato relation


  • Virus diagnostics
  • Quantitative PCR
  • Droplet digital     PCR
  • LAMP
  • NGS
  • Virus host  interactions

Selected publications

  • KUTNJAK, Denis, ELENA Santiago, RAVNIKAR Maja, Time-sampled population sequencing reveals the interplay of selection and genetic drift in experimental evolution of Potato virus Y. Journal of Virology. 2017 Jun 7. pii: JVI.00690-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00690-17
  • KUTNJAK, Denis, RUPAR, Matevž, GUTIÉRREZ-AGUIRRE, Ion, CURK, Tomaž, KREUZE, Jan F., RAVNIKAR, Maja. Deep sequencing of virus derived small interfering RNAs and RNA from viral particles shows highly similar mutational landscape of a plant virus population. Journal of virology, ISSN 0022-538X, 2015, vol. 89, no. 9, str. 4760-4769
  • RUPAR, Matevž, FAUREZ, Florence, TRIBODET, Michel, GUTIÉRREZ-AGUIRRE, Ion, DELAUNAY, Agnes, GLAIS, Laurent, KRIŽNIK, Maja, DOBNIK, David, GRUDEN, Kristina, JACQUOT, Emmanuel, RAVNIKAR, Maja. Fluorescently tagged Potato virus Y : a versatile tool for functional analysis of plant-virus interactions. Molecular plant-microbe interactions, ISSN 0894-0282, 2015, vol. 28, no. 7, str. 739-750
  • GUTIÉRREZ-AGUIRRE, Ion, HODNIK, Vesna, GLAIS, Laurent, RUPAR, Matevž, JACQUOT, Emmanuel, ANDERLUH, Gregor, RAVNIKAR, Maja. Surface plasmon resonance for monitoring the interaction of Potato virus Y with monoclonal antibodies. Analytical biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, 2014, vol. 447, str. 74-81
  • MEHLE, Nataša, GUTIÉRREZ-AGUIRRE, Ion, PREZELJ, Nina, DELIĆ, Duška, VIDIC, Urška, RAVNIKAR, Maja. Survival and transmission of Potato virus Y, Pepino mosaic virus, and Potato spindle tuber viroid in water. Applied and environmental microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, 2014, vol. 80, no. 4, str. 1455-1462