Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Effects of farming systems on fatty acid composition of cow, goat and ewe milk evaluated with mid-infrared spectroscopy

INRA Prod Anim 27(4) 269-282


1 Institut de l’Elevage, BP 42118, F-31321 Castanet-Tolosan, France
2 Institut de l’Elevage, CS 70510, F-49105 Angers, France
3 INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
4 Clermont Université, VetAgro Sup, UMR1213 Herbivores, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
5 Agrocampus Ouest, UMR1348 PEGASE, F-35000 Rennes, France
6 INRA, UMR1348 PEGASE, F-35590 Saint Gilles, France
7 INRA, UMR1388 GenPhySE, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
8 Université de Toulouse INPT ENSAT, UMR1388 GenPhySE, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
9 Université de Toulouse INPT ENVT, UMR1388 GenPhySE, F-31076 Toulouse, France
10 Université de Toulouse INPT, Ecole d’Ingénieurs de Purpan, UMR1388 GenPhySE, F-31076 Toulouse, France
11 Institut de l’Elevage, BP 85225, F-35652 Le Rheu, France


Factors affecting milk fatty acid (FA) composition were evaluated in 2010 in 1157 Holstein, Montbeliarde and Normandy cattle farms, 209 Alpine and Saanen goat farms and 162 Lacaune and Manech Red Head sheep farms. The lactation stage strongly increased saturated FA (SFA) in bovine milk until the fourth month. This impact was lower in goat and ewe milk. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content varied in the opposite direction, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content was relatively stable over lactation. Saturated FA content increased in ewe milk with age at first lambing. This effect was lower in goats. Seasonal calving period did not influence bovine milk FA profile but production season did: the minimum level of SFA content was reached in long-day periods. This seasonal effect was lower in goats and was confounded by the effect of grazing period in ewes. The feeding system influence was higher in cattle than in sheep and goats. Grazing and green forage feeding systems had the same influence on FA profile in cow, goat and ewe milk: SFA content decreased especially in cattle, whereas MUFA and PUFA contents increased. The effect of feeding systems that contain preserved fodders on milk FA composition was low.

Download documents