Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Will meat be produced in vitro in the future?

INRA Prod. Anim. 26(4) 363-374


1 INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
2 Clermont Université, VetAgro Sup, UMR1213 Herbivores, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
3 Académie de la Viande, 149 rue de Bercy, 75012 Paris, France
4 INRA, UR0370 QuaPA, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
5 INRA, UMR1019, Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
6 Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, UMR1019, Nutrition Humaine, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
7 INP-ENV Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France
8 INRA, UR1303 ALISS, 65 boulevard de Brandebourg, 94205 Ivry-sur-Seine, France
9 Ghent University, Department of Agricultural Economics, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium


The production of artificial meat by cell culture is suggested by some scientists as one solution to address the major challenges facing our society: (i) reducing potential discomfort of animals on modern farms or avoiding killing animals to eat them (ii) reducing potential environmental degradation by livestock and (iii) reducing world hunger by increasing protein resources. Artificial meat would indeed eliminate any animal “suffering” in farming systems and would avoid the slaughtering of animals to eat them. The environmental impact of artificial meat is difficult to evaluate due to the absence of references on production units. However, it may have a moderate interest in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and pollution by nitrates, a limited interest for decreasing fossil fuel use or a very limited interest concerning water use, but it would make more land available. It may result in the presence of organic molecule residues in water. Nevertheless, many experts believe that the causes of the current malnutrition of some human populations are diverse, and not directly related to a lack of food resources. Although cell culture can be usually performed in laboratories, there are significant major technical difficulties to move towards a large-scale production as the prohibitive cost of current technologies and the lack of similarity of the obtained product with meat from animals. From a nutritional point of view, artificial meat has no particular advantage compared to another type of food made from all nutrients necessary for its production. The criteria for acceptability of artificial meat refer, first, to moral or ethical concerns about the technology and the worries it raises, and secondly, to usual food product concerns (price, quality, naturality, etc.). In the past, attempts to substitute animal proteins with similar products have failed due to economic constraints, the time required for potential product acceptance by consumers and permission to place the products on the market by public authorities. In conclusion, given the important challenges facing livestock, production of artificial meat does not present any major advantage compared to natural meat or to other options such as balancing human food supply by more diverse sources of plant and animal proteins, or developing friendly farming systems for animals and the environment. Technical, economic and social constraints, including uncertain acceptance by consumers of artificial foods, are indeed major limitations to the development of artificial meat.

Download documents