Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Feeding control of fatty acid composition and vitamin content in the cow milk

INRA Prod Anim 26(2) 177-192


1 INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France

2 Clermont Université VetAgro Sup, UMR1213 Herbivores, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France


This paper, after summarising the digestive and metabolic origins of milk fatty acids and vitamins, presents the effects of the main nutritional factors on their concentration. Grazed grass, when compared to winter diets, decreased the milk content of saturated fatty acids, in favor of trans and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C18:3n-3 and c9t11-CLA. Short- and long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with linseed or rapeseed increased the milk content of trans fatty acids and slightly c9t11-CLA. Cows fed linseed produced milks richer in C18:3n-3 and poorer in c9-C18:1 than those fed rapeseed. The responses depend on interactions among the nature of the forage, starch content and oilseed nature. The addition of tannins or essential oils has little influence on milk fatty acid composition. Except for the B12 vitamin, all vitamins present in milk can originate from forages or concentrate, and/or mineral premix containing A, E and D3 vitamins. The ruminant can also synthesize A, C, B3, and D vitamins from dietary precursors. The B and K vitamins are synthesized by rumen bacteria. The nutritional factors altering milk vitamin concentrations are not well documented, except for vitamin A. Nevertheless, feeding is an important tool to improve milk nutritional quality.

Download documents