Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Epigenetics and phenotype construction, a challenge for livestock production ?

Inra Prod.Anim., 23 (1), 23-42

H. JAMMES, J.-P. RENARD

INRA, UMR1198 Biologie du Développement et Reproduction, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France

ENVA, Biologie du Développement et Reproduction, F-94704 Maisons-Alfort, France

Abstract 
Epigenetics refers to the inheritable changes of genomic activities that do not alter DNA sequences. It deals with the molecular me-chanisms orchestrating chromatin remodelling, which leads to gene transcription or silencing. Here, we provide evidence from the published scientific literature that the epigenetic marks are apposed onto the genome in a sequential, reversible and/or inheritable manner. These marks can be finely measured to characterise the epigenome. The functional analysis of the epigenetic processes provides support to the two associated concepts of genome flexibility and robustness. Genome flexibility is involved in the acquisition of cell identity during differentiation (Why do not the various cellular types of an organism use the same genetic information in a similar manner ?), and in the adaptation to environmental cues as illustrated by the mechanism underlying the fate of honeybees that become fertile queens or sterile workers. But the epigenome is also crucial for the development of individuals that requires the robustness of epigenetic marks as exemplified from parental imprinting studies. The flexibility of epigenetic marks is associated with transitory adaptation to environmental changes while robustness reveals long term processes associated with more stable marks that in some instances can pass over several generations. This review points to the importance of epigenetic processes for genome functions and proposes that the integration of the molecular data describing the epigenomic states could be considered as new variables in selection to preserve the sustainability of animal breeding.

Download documents