Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Evolution of the genetic diversity of French beef cattle populations from 1979 to 2008

Inra Prod.Anim., 22 (4), 317-330


1 INRA, UMR1313 Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France

2 AgroParisTech, 16 rue Claude Bernard, F-75231 Paris, France

This paper presents an analysis of the genetic variability of the three main beef cattle breeds in France using pedigree analyses. In the three breeds, two breeder nuclei are influent on other herds of the population with on-farm performance recording because they provide numerous natural service bulls or young males for artificial insemination (AI) in breeding programs. The degree of pedigree knowledge is good but heterogeneous between breeders and producers. Estimated levels and rates of inbreeding are low to moderate (0.01%, 0.1% and 0.20% per generation for the Limousin, Charolais and Blonde d’Aquitaine populations, respectively). They correspond to large gene-tic effective sizes (>1000, 601 and 247 in the Limousin, Charolais and Blonde d’Aquitaine breeds, respectively) and therefore to important genetic variability. Effective sizes estimated for breeder nuclei are lower than those estimated for other production herds with perfor-mance recording but are nevertheless large. The evolution of the statistics derived from probabilities of gene origin shows occurrence of old bottlenecks in the Blonde d’Aquitaine population resulting from a large AI use in the past. In the Charolais and Limousin breeds, bottlenecks are more recent and result from a low but increasing AI use. To preserve genetic variability, it would be advisable to balance contributions of each bull to the cohort of males recruited for the breeding program for insemination bulls and to maintain a minimal proportion of natural service sires of son.

Download documents