Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Invisible but dangerous, the bacteria carrier state is starting to reveal its secrets

INRA Prod. Anim., 21 (2), 201-212.


INRA, UR1282 Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, F-37380 Nouzilly, France

The analysis of bacterial carrier state in domestic animals is relatively recent, despite the important role of carriers in the epidemiology and evolution of infectious diseases. The most documented examples are zoonoses, i.e. animal diseases transmitted to humans, primarily through food. The carrier animal is infected by bacteria without manifesting symptoms of this infection ; these bacteria are then transmitted to another susceptible human or animal host. In some cases, carrier state prevalence in animals is very high and its degree of importance is related to the frequency and/or the seriousness of the diseases it induces. The phenomenon is misunderstood and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved could improve its control, thus reducing disease risk in humans. The use of analytical tools in relevant experimental models has enabled the initial analysis of bacterial and host factors involved in the carrier state. The most documented example is the intestinal carrier state, which was compared in several models : Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chickens, Campylobacter jejuni in the same host species and Escherichia coli O157 :H7 in ruminants. This work shows that the factors involved are numerous in both the bacterium and the host. Each model has revealed the involvement of factors of which a few are in common. Regulating or modulating mechanisms that help to explain this balance between the bacterium and its host are also highlighted.

Download documents