Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

The mule duck : genetic determinism of an intergeneric hybrid

INRA Prod. Anim., 18(5), 295-308.


1 INRA, Station d’Amélioration Génétique des Animaux, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex

2 INRA, Station de Génétique Quantitative et Appliquée, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex


The mule duck, an inter-generic hybrid between the Muscovy drake and the common duck, produces more than 90 % of the French “foiegras”. The reciprocal hybrid (common drake x Muscovy female duck) offers no interest in animal breeding. Since the 1980’s, the muleduck has been obtained by artificial insemination, with a fertility rate reaching 70 % owing to artificial insemination practised twice aweek, because of the short duration of the fertile period in the crossbreeding. Thise synthesis first deals with the zoological aspects of thishybridisation (cytogenetics, mating, fertilisation and embryonic development, hybrid sterility). Then, it deals with, from a zootechnicalpoint of view, the reproductive performances of the common duck female (laying, fertility and duration of fertility, hatchability) and thetraits of the mule duck (growth, plumage colouration, behaviour, feed efficiency, body composition, force feeding, quality of the products).The aim was first to describe the specificity of the mule duck with respect to the parental species, and, when possible (the presence of thereciprocal hybrid), to interpret its performances in terms of parental genetic contributions. Another aim was to review the genetic parametersof mule traits estimated within the parental strains and the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances.These parameters determine the potential of within-strain selection to improve the mule duck. At last, some elements of molecular geneticsare presented (genetic markers, compared genetic maps).

Download documents