Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Technical and economical consequences of modifying reproduction in goat herds

INRA Prod. Anim., 10(4), 317-326.


BTPL, "Bonnillet", BP 30, 86361 Chasseneuil du Poitou


At European latitudes, goat reproduction is characterized by a strong seasonal influence. In order to meet the needs of the dairy industry, breeders are forced to advance the kidding period by using oestrus hormonal synchronization programmes.

The aim of the present article is to analyse the technical and economic consequences induced by modifying the reproduction season of caprines over a long period of time (from 1989 to 1992).

The average annual milk production per goat does not improve with the change of reproduction season, whereas both the average proteic rate and the proportion of milk produced in winter increased (up to 20 % for births in November). Units resorting to out of season reproduction do not get better results than those which maintained later births, owing to disturbances due to hormonal synchronization programmes. Their progression over 4 years tends to be inferior as well.

Out of season reproduction hinders the regrouping of births. The kidding period increased by 40 days (+ 41 %) between 1989 and 1992, reaching 4.5 months. Consequently, the age of young females became heterogenous, resulting in difficulties in breeding management and reproduction.

However, the units where out of season reproduction and breeding of the youngsters are well managed, tend to be more efficient. The quality of the breeding of young females therefore gives a good indication of the technical level of the breeding.

Download documents