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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Digestive parasitism of small ruminants in the French West Indies

INRA Prod. Anim., 10(1), 79-89.

G. AUMONT¹, R. POUILLOT¹, R. SIMON¹, G. HOSTACHE¹, H. VARO¹, N. BARRɲ

1 INRA Unité de Recherches Zootechniques Antilles-Guyane, BP 515, 97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (FWI) 

2 CIRAD-EMVT, BP 515, 97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (FWI)

Abstract 

The Nematode Haemonchus contortus, the Cestode Moniezia sp. and the protozoa Eimeria spp. are the main digestive parasites of small ruminants in the Caribbean. Models of infective third stage larvae (L3) ofHaemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis have been established to use simulation to estimate the infestation risk according to season, irrigation practice, herbage mass and pasture management.

The faunistic diversity is low : 10 species of worm in Guadeloupe. The prevalence of Haemonchus sp. andTrichostrongylus spp. range from 80 to 100 %. Incidences of these worms are higher than 60 % per month. The main sources of variation in infestation risk are irrigation, climate and susceptibility of animals. The strongylosis is responsible for more than 80 % of the mortality rate before weaning, which raises to 40 %. Resistance of Haemonchus contortus strains to anthelmintics (benzimidazoles) are common in Guadeloupe and Martinique. All the studies on farms confirmed that digestive strongylosis is the main disease of small ruminants in the Lesser Antilles.

The research carried out by the Animal Production Research Unit of INRA to improve animal breeding and husbandry in pasture (type of forage, stocking rate recommendations, mixed grazing, etc...) took into account the importance of strongylosis in small ruminants production. The genetic resistance of Creole goats to digestive strongles and the possible use of feeding supplements are beingstudied for integration in a plan to control these parasitic diseases.

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