Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Social relationships, aggressive behaviour and emotional reactivity in Ungulates : influences of sex steroids

INRA Prod. Anim., 8 (2), 71-82.

M.-F. BOUISSOU

INRA Laboratoire du Comportement Animal, 37380 Nouzilly

Abstract 

Aside from their effects on sexual motivation and reproductive behaviour, sex steroids influence a variety of other behaviours, especially social relationships, agonistic behaviour and emotional reactivity.

Our knowledge of the hormonal influences on these behaviours in ungulates is somewhat fragmentary despite the fact that the endocrine system of the domestic species is well known. However, the importance of understanding the behaviours that are susceptible to be influenced by sex steroids is evident for the efficient management of domestic species.

There are well established sex differences in aggressive behaviour, ability to dominate, social role and fear reactions. These differences are influenced by androgens. Variations in agonistic and territorial behaviour related to natural variations in hormonal levels have been demonstrated in many species. Experimental manipulation of hormonal levels by castration and hormone replacement therapy, and experimental hormonal treatments have confirmed the role of sex steroids. In particular, treatment of both males and females with androgens enhances their dominance ability and reduces their fear reactions in both social and non social situations. Moreover, this effect persists long after the end of treatment. It is possible to influence the future social rank of an animal by giving it such a treatment. However, the mechanisms by which androgens act remains unclear.

Since male animals are being increasingly reared in groups, the study of the relationship between androgens and aggressiveness is of particular interest. In addition, emotional reactivity is involved in the ability of the animals to adapt to their environment. The study of the factors (including sex steroids) capable of influencing this intermediate variable is therefore important in order to develop management techniques which take animal welfare into account.

Download documents