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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Animal production in French Guiana. Results obtained with domestic species and investigations conducted on two wild local species

INRA Prod. Anim., 6 (5), 319-332.

S. INGRAND, G. HOSTACHE*

Départements Systèmes Agraires et Développement/Elevage et Nutrition des Herbivores, Laboratoire Adaptation des Herbivores aux Milieux, Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle

* Département Hydrobiologie-Faune sauvage, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex

Abstract 
In French Guiana, zootechnical research run by INRA, within the developpement program called ’Plan-Vert&dquo; initiated in 1975, were specially focused on cattle rearing (zebu Brahman), in order to increase local beef meat production. Most of the technical datas concern reproductive performances under tropical climate and rearing of bulls on pasture between weaning (9 to 10 months of age) and slaughtering (24 to 30 months of age). In addition, the control of performances of private herds from 1985 to 1987, have contributed to analyse &dquo;on-farms&dquo; technical results.This has been the first step towards a typology based on management practices of the farmers. Investigations and studies about other species (pigs, poultry, rabbits) have led to conclude, regarding the number of farmers involved, that beef production is not prevailing in French Guiana. The main characteristic of breeding systems is the diversification of the productions (one farm : many species), in order to adapt to the local market, and to satisfy their necessity of cash-flow. In this situation, where diversification of rearing activities is valuable, local wild species could turn out to be an interesting way to valorize the natural biological resources of French Guiana. Up to now, two species have been studied in this respect, a local rodent : the cabiaï (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), and a freshwater fish : the atipa (Hoplosternum littorale). In conclusion, considerations about necessary conditions to develop sustainable breeding systems in French Guiana are presented. They stress the idea that taking into account economical and sociological aspects is of a special importance in the guianese context.

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