Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Intensive milk production in Pas-de-Calais

INRA Prod. Anim., 6 (2), 117-136.


CEMAGREF Groupement de Clermont-Ferrand, Division Production et Economie Agricoles, Laluas 63200 Riom* INRA Laboratoire de Recherches sur l’Economie de l’Elevage, Theix 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle

** Chambre dAgriculture du Pas-de- Calais, CETA de Saulty 16 rue de l’Enfer 62123 Wanquetin
*** UGCA BP62-ZI Est 62223 Saint-Laurent-Blangy

Abstract The presence of animal rearing in intensive cereal crop regions is a source of economic and agronomical complementarities for which we can value the advantages better today. However, these diversified systems have made way for other more specialised systems resulting in the separation of the two sectors, animal rearing and cash-crops. This study analyses the results and changes over six years from a sample of dairy farms in Pas-de-Calais which employed a high productivity dairy-crop system. The institution of milk quotas in 1984 (first monitored year) has profoundly modified the development of farms, which on growing have rediversified their system by increasing cash-crop size as well as milk production (7000 litres per cow for 1300 kg of concentrates, and more than 15000 litres per hectare of forage SFP in 1989/9). Four farm profiles have been identified, differing in structure, the balance between milk production and crops and the resulting production. Milk production obtained often followed that of crops. The evolution of the farms differed according to the possibility of obtaining supplementary quotas or of increasing in size. The largest farms diversified their crops more, although this was not detrimental to herd production. Because of the balance, their level of production and the farmers’ competence, dairy-crop farms are among the best equiped to confront economic constraints in the future, notably the consequences of the PAC reform, whilst at the same time respecting the environment better. However, these complex systems demand a large amount of capital, not least for handing down the farm from one generation to another, and they also demand more than one person working on the farm.

Download documents