Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Pig feeding for lean meat production : recent developments and prospects

INRA Prod. Anim., 6 (1), 31-45.


INRA Station de Recherches Porcines 35590 St-Gilles

During the last decades, pig production has gained important and continuous progress from selection for constantly increasing lean tissue gain and decreasing fat deposition, in order to meet the increasing demand of market and consumer. The present report is intended to examine the changes that have been introduced in pig feeding to bring the necessary adaptations for optimizing growth performance, by considering the recent development and the trends for the future, in relation to the predictable shift in production performance and technological innovations. The unceasingly changing contribution of animal related factors has made it necessary to consider prediction modelling of nutritional requirements (energy, protein and amino acids), with a general trend to lower energy needs than in the past and higher amino acid requirements relative to energy. This modelling approach allows to implement new feeding strategies (feeding scale, type of feed for a given phase of production) that are adapted to lean meat production, according to specific production conditions and with sufficiently discriminating feed evaluation systems (net energy, ileal amino acid digestibility). In addition, the steady increase in some dietary inputs (nitrogen, phosphorus) for expanded lean meat production implies a sound management of nutrient supply, in order to prevent excessive loss to the environment (water, atmosphere). The observed trend to some degradation of meat quality with intense selection for muscular growth, particularly with regard to technological and organoleptic characteristics, necessitates to take into account these constraints in feeding, whether one considers fat deposition or lean tissue gain (extent of intramuscular fat). Finally, after examining the effects of feeding on carcass conformation, we have considered the incidence of excessive leanness in sows on reproduction performance, in relation to mobilization and restauration of body lipid reserves. This problem of optimum balance between lean and fat is an important challenge for future evolution of feeding lean pigs. From practical standpoint, the new nutritional approaches based on establishing dose - response relationships that integrate the diversity of available genotypes (from the fattest to the leannest), along with production and environmental conditions, should contribute, in each case, to fix the optimum conditions for producing a given type of pig.

Download documents