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Last update: May 2021

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The present project aims at further evaluating the health, social and economic impact of tailored nutrition as applied to the prevention of metabolic diseases. More precisely, the overall goal of the project will be to assess and analyze the relevance and the effectiveness of the general model described in Figure 1 that targets public health benefits through individual behavioral changes (arrow 1). These are induced by tailored food and dietary recommendations transmitted to consumers on different types of platforms, including digital and mobile devices, as aids to their food and dietary choices (arrow 2). Translating general nutritional recommendations into tailored dietary recommendations (arrow 3) requires prior characterization of the nutritional quality of the foods and sensory preferences regarding food (arrow 4) as well as identifying consumer profiles associated with different risk levels (arrow 5).

Tested tailored nutrition logical model

Figure 1. Tested tailored nutrition logical model

We will investigate the potential benefits of this general vision of tailored nutrition by focusing on T2D prevention as a model of metabolic disease.Prevention of T2D raises major public health challenges in many countries, especially among disadvantaged social categories. In France, diabetes has become the primary cause of full reimbursement of care for a Long Duration Condition. Despite the hopes generated by human genome sequencing, mutations or genetic predisposition only accounts for 10-20% of diabetes cases. A huge amount of investigation has been conducted in the last few decades and many studies highlight the role of lifestyle and dietary factors in disease incidence (Ley, 2014; Maki et al., 2015; Aune et al. 2013; Carter et al., 2010 and Cooper et al., 2012; and Malik et al., 2010; Fagherazzi et al., 2013, 2014a and 2014b; Salas-Salmondo et al., 2011 and 2014). However, as suggested by Maki and Phillips (2015), the appropriate combination of macronutrients to optimize metabolic health has not yet been fully described and the current body of knowledge is insufficient to accurately target high risk individuals based on their diet (Fagherazzi, 2016). As diet quality and diversity are highly dependent on the socioeconomic environment (Brown et al., 2004; Espelt et al., 2011; Larranaga et al., 2005; Tanaka et al., 2012), it is necessary to prospectively investigate the interactions between food groups, nutrients, dietary patterns and socioeconomic factors (individual and contextual) in relation to T2D.

Evidence suggests that comprehensive lifestyle interventions may decrease the incidence of T2D in at-risk individuals (Schellenberg et al., 2012). However, a recent meta-analysis concludes that more research is needed to establish optimal strategies for maximizing both effectiveness and longer-term maintenance of diabetes prevention effects (Dunkley et al., 2014). In addition, cost-effectiveness of intervention programs remains controversial (Li et al., 2015; Kahn and Davidson, 2014). In this context documenting and quantifying the potential effects of tailored nutrition on T2D prevention is of great scientific and public health importance.