Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Task 1a: From the within-host cellular mechanisms involved in the immune status of hosts to the between-host pathogen spread: application to PRRSv infection in pigs

We focus on defining host health statuses with respect to host characteristics in terms of immune response.

First, we will aim to better understand the cellular mechanisms of the immune response and how they relate to the susceptibility and infectiousness of the host. We will determine which components of the immune response and which levels of these components are associated with specific patterns of pathogen dynamics. We then will model the within-host immune response using a compartmental model whose parameters will be estimated from data that currently are being collected from an experimental infection of SPF pigs with PRRSv. In this experiment, several immunological variables are investigated. First, their correlation with the pig infectious status will be established. Preliminary results suggest that early events in the immune response might be pivotal. Therefore, additional data will be collected from another experiment focusing on the first days following PRRSv infection. Additionnally, data will be collected from a follow-up study in naturally PRRSv infected herds to validate the model under field conditions. This will help in assessing the effectiveness of control measures at the individual level by determining the thresholds that must be reached in terms of intensity of the immune response.

Second, we will represent the pathogen spread at the herd level. A model will be built, taking into account host variability in terms of immune status, as well as the population structure of the farm. An individual-based model could be considered, but it might generate problems related to the high dimensionality when transposing it at the supply chain level in WP2, especially as pig herds are generally managed in batches, which already induces a strongly structured herd (Lurette at al., 2008b). Hence, several degrees of simplification and aggregation will be tested to determine which can best represent the host heterogeneity and the herd global response with the simplest possible structure. The data collected from the follow-up study described above also will provide information on change over time in within-herd infection dynamics, which will enable the model to be validated. This immuno-epidemiological model then will be used to evaluate control strategies of PRRSv infection at the herd level (vaccination, biosecurity, etc.).