Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo TULIP Nouveau bandeau tutelles EN

Home

The genomes of 13 species of wild and cultivated rice revealed: better conserve and harness the genetic diversity of one of the pillars of global food security

The genomes of 13 species of wild and cultivated rice revealed
An international consortium of 16 partners, including the LGDP (UMR 5096 CNRS / UPVD) which recently joined the TULIP LabEx has published in Nature genetics an article describing the comparative sequencing of 13 wild and cultivated rice genomes (genus Oryza). The study reveals the evolutionary dynamics of a plant genome over 15 million years and shows that genes, which were thought to be highly conserved within the same genus, are in fact very dynamic (they appear and disappear at an unexpectedly high rates during evolution). A better knowledge of these genomes is a valuable resource for better exploiting the diversity of rice, thus contributing to the world's food security.

With a world production approaching 500 million tons, rice is the staple food for billions of human beings, often among the poorest on the planet. This cereal is therefore one of the pillars of food security in Asia, Africa and South America. Its sustained production, as it is the case for all plants of economic interest, depends on the development of improved varieties with high agronomic performances.

Maintain genetic diversity

RIZ

Wild African rice (inner circle) and cultivated rice (outer circle) © Olivier Panaud

The spread of high-yielding varieties, however, poses the problem of eroding genetic diversity, as these varieties gradually replace traditional ones. This erosion constitutes a threat in the context of accelerating environmental changes, since the lack of genetic diversity may seriously diminish our capacity to find new sources of tolerance to the new crop conditions (hot, cold, drought, floods...) that we will face in the near future. Such sources nevertheless exist in natural populations of wild species close to cultivated rice (of the same genus Oryza). A good knowledge of the genome of these species will allow us to better identify and exploit their genetic diversity and thus better fight the effects of climate change to ensure food security.

Characterize the dynamics of genes on evolutionary times

From a fundamental point of view, the genome sequencing of these 13 species helps us better understand the evolution of plant genomes. The genus Oryza is about 15 million years old. Thus, for example, the comparison of available genomes allows us to characterize the dynamics of genes over evolutionary times ranging from a few hundreds of thousands to several million years. One of the surprises of the study is the discovery of the very high rate of appearance of new genes (whose origin remains unknown) in all species. This mechanism could be at the origin of the diversity observed between the species. In addition, the transposable elements (which are non-genic sequences but very frequent in plant genomes) are also very dynamic and actively contribute to the differentiation of genomes. This article helps to better understand the functional impact of these elements and how they contribute to the genesis of biodiversity in plants

See also

Joshua C. Stein et al. ; Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rices relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza ; Nature Genetics volume 50, pages285–296 (2018) doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0040-0

Olivier Panaud's website