Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo TULIP Nouveau bandeau tutelles EN


Two articles shed light on the tomato's detection and response mechanisms to ethylene and ethanol

Two articles shed light on the tomato's detection and response mechanisms to ethylene and ethanol
The detection of ethylene and ethanol is important for the germination, growth and development of the plant. Two articles published in the journals Plant Science and Horticulture Research increase our knowledge on this detection and the induced responses. These articles are the result of a collaboration between researchers from the Genomics and Biotechnology of Fruit unit (UMR 990 INRAE / ENSAT) and Brad Binder (University of Tennessee), a researcher whom they were able to invite thanks to a TULIP "Visiting Scientist" grant.

Ethanol is known to accumulate in various plant organs under various environmental conditions. However, there is very little data on the detection of ethanol by the plants themselves. The team of researchers from the Genomics and Biotechnology of Fruit unit described in a recent Plant Science article that ethanol accumulates when the tomato seeds soak up water, especially when the seeds are stacked together on the others. The stacked seeds germinate less than the spread seeds, suggesting that ethanol inhibits germination.

Taking seeds and adding exogenous ethanol to them, the researchers note the same phenomenon of inhibition. However, the effects of the added ethanol were not related to differences in ethylene production by the soaked seeds. They observe that exogenous ethanol at low concentration regulates the expression of certain ethylene receptors. In addition, the triple response induced by ethylene in tomato plants was partially attenuated by ethanol. These results show that there are interactions between the detection of ethylene and ethanol in plants. Similar observations have been made on Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and seedlings.
But what about the detection of ethylene?

New ethylene receptor revealed by tomato genome sequencing

Ethylene is perceived by a family of well-known ethylene receptors (ETRs). However, a complete understanding of the ETR function is complicated by the functional redundancy between proteins of different forms of this receptor. In the second article that interests us, published in the journal Horticulture Research, the same researchers characterize a new ETR, called SlETR7, which was revealed by the sequencing of the tomato genome. They show that this receptor specifically binds to ethylene.

The expression of SlETR7 in the tomato pericarp increases when the fruit ripens and its expression is synchronized with the expression of other receptors. The authors of the article also discovered an error in the SlETR7 sequence documented in previous versions of the tomato genome, so they were able to correct it ("ITAG 4" version of the tomato genome).

Overall, these results show that SlETR7 is a functional ethylene receptor. Research remains to be carried out to better understand its specific roles linked to the six other tomato REEs.
Beyond the issue of ethylene in tomatoes, certain ethylene perception genes are found in many taxa, so this research tells us about signaling mechanisms that could be widely distributed.

See also

Chen Y., Hu G., Rodriguez C., Liu M., Binder B., Chervin C. 2020. Roles of SlETR7, a newly discovered ethylene receptor, in tomato plant and fruit development. Horticulture Research, 7:17.

Chen Y., Althiab Almasaud R., Carrie E., Desbrosses G., Binder B., Chervin C. 2020. Ethanol, at physiological concentrations, affects ethylene sensing in tomato germinating seeds and seedlings. Plant Science, 291:110368.