Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Foresterra

Home page

Suggested references

Alberto, Florian J., Sally N. Aitken, Ricardo Alía, Santiago C. González-Martínez, Heikki Hänninen, Antoine Kremer, François Lefèvre, et al. 2013. “Potential for Evolutionary Responses to Climate Change – Evidence from Tree Populations.” Global Change Biology 19 (6): 1645–61. doi:10.1111/gcb.12181.

Alfaro, René I., Bruno Fady, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin, Ian K. Dawson, Richard A. Fleming, Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero, Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros, et al. 2014. “The Role of Forest Genetic Resources in Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Factors in the Context of Anthropogenic Climate Change.” Forest Ecology and Management, Global Forest Genetic Resources: Taking Stock, 333: 76–87. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.04.006.

Aravanopoulos, Filippos A., Kostas P. Panetsos, and Apostolos Skaltsoyiannes. 2004. “Genetic Structure of Pinus Brutia Stands Exposed to Wild Fires.” Plant Ecology 171 (1-2): 175–83. doi:10.1023/B:VEGE.0000029370.82842.46.

Balvanera, Patricia, Andrea B. Pfisterer, Nina Buchmann, Jing-Shen He, Tohru Nakashizuka, David Raffaelli, and Bernhard Schmid. 2006. “Quantifying the Evidence for Biodiversity Effects on Ecosystem Functioning and Services.” Ecology Letters 9 (10): 1146–56. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00963.x.

Barrett, Christopher B., and Mark A. Constas. 2014. “Toward a Theory of Resilience for International Development Applications.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (40): 14625–30. doi:10.1073/pnas.1320880111.

Birot, Y, C Gracia, and M Palahi. 2011. Water for Forests and People in the Mediterranean – A Challenging Balance. What Science Can Tell Us 1. EFI.

Blondel, Jacques. 2006. “The ‘Design’ of Mediterranean Landscapes: A Millennial Story of Humans and Ecological Systems during the Historic Period.” Human Ecology 34 (5): 713–29. doi:10.1007/s10745-006-9030-4.

Carpenter, Steve, Brian Walker, J. Marty Anderies, and Nick Abel. 2001. “From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What?” Ecosystems 4 (8): 765–81. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9.

Čater, Matjaž, and Tom Levanič. 2013. “Response of Fagus Sylvatica L. and Abies Alba Mill. in Different Silvicultural Systems of the High Dinaric Karst.” Forest Ecology and Management 289: 278–88. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.10.021.

Chapin, F. Stuart, Amy L. Lovecraft, Erika S. Zavaleta, Joanna Nelson, Martin D. Robards, Gary P. Kofinas, Sarah F. Trainor, Garry D. Peterson, Henry P. Huntington, and Rosamond L. Naylor. 2006. “Policy Strategies to Address Sustainability of Alaskan Boreal Forests in Response to a Directionally Changing Climate.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (45): 16637–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606955103.

De Aranzabal, Itziar, María Fe Schmitz, Pedro Aguilera, and Francisco D. Pineda. 2008. “Modelling of Landscape Changes Derived from the Dynamics of Socio-Ecological Systems.” Ecological Indicators 8 (5): 672–85. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2007.11.003.

DeClerck, Fabrice A. J., Michael G. Barbour, and John O. Sawyer. 2006. “Species Richness and Stand Stability in Conifer Forests of the Sierra Nevada.” Ecology 87 (11): 2787–99. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[2787:SRASSI]2.0.CO;2.

Doblas-Miranda, E., J. Martínez-Vilalta, F. Lloret, A. Álvarez, A. Ávila, F. J. Bonet, L. Brotons, et al. 2015. “Reassessing Global Change Research Priorities in Mediterranean Terrestrial Ecosystems: How Far Have We Come and Where Do We Go from Here?” Global Ecology and Biogeography 24 (1): 25–43. doi:10.1111/geb.12224.

ECOFOR. 2012. “Tackling Climate Change: The Contribution of Forest Scientific Knowledge 21 - 24 May, 2012, Tours (France).” n.d.

EFIMED. 2010. “Mediterranean Forest Research Agenda 2010-2020.”

FAO. 2013. “State of the Mediterranean Forests 2013.”

Filotas, Elise, Lael Parrott, Philip J. Burton, Robin L. Chazdon, K. David Coates, Lluís Coll, Sybille Haeussler, et al. 2014. “Viewing Forests through the Lens of Complex Systems Science.” Ecosphere 5 (1): art1. doi:10.1890/ES13-00182.1.

Folke, Carl, Steve Carpenter, Brian Walker, Marten Scheffer, Thomas Elmqvist, Lance Gunderson, and C.S. Holling. 2004. “Regime Shifts, Resilience, and Biodiversity in Ecosystem Management.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35 (1): 557–81. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.021103.105711.

Gamfeldt, Lars, Tord Snäll, Robert Bagchi, Micael Jonsson, Lena Gustafsson, Petter Kjellander, María C. Ruiz-Jaen, et al. 2013. “Higher Levels of Multiple Ecosystem Services Are Found in Forests with More Tree Species.” Nature Communications 4: 1340. doi:10.1038/ncomms2328.

Ganopoulos, Ioannis, Filippos A. Aravanopoulos, Anagnostis Argiriou, Apostolos Kalivas, and Athanasios Tsaftaris. 2011. “Is the Genetic Diversity of Small Scattered Forest Tree Populations at the Southern Limits of Their Range More Prone to Stochastic Events? A Wild Cherry Case Study by Microsatellite-Based Markers.” Tree Genetics & Genomes 7 (6): 1299–1313. doi:10.1007/s11295-011-0414-2.

Gardiner, B, A Schuck, MJ Schelhaas, C Orazio, Blennow, and B Nicoll. 2013. Living with Storm Damage to Forests. What Science Can Tell Us 3. EFI.

Geijzendorffer, Ilse R., Eugenie C. Regan, Henrique M. Pereira, Lluis Brotons, Neil Brummitt, Yoni Gavish, Peter Haase, et al. 2015. “Bridging the Gap between Biodiversity Data and Policy Reporting Needs: An Essential Biodiversity Variables Perspective.” Journal of Applied Ecology, n/a – n/a. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12417.

Graudal, Lars, Filippos Aravanopoulos, Zohra Bennadji, Suchitra Changtragoon, Bruno Fady, Erik D. Kjær, Judy Loo, Lolona Ramamonjisoa, and Giovanni G. Vendramin. 2014. “Global to Local Genetic Diversity Indicators of Evolutionary Potential in Tree Species within and Outside Forests.” Forest Ecology and Management, Global Forest Genetic Resources: Taking Stock, 333: 35–51. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.05.002.

Grimm, Nancy B, F Stuart Chapin, Britta Bierwagen, Patrick Gonzalez, Peter M Groffman, Yiqi Luo, Forrest Melton, et al. 2013. “The Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Structure and Function.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11 (9): 474–82. doi:10.1890/120282.

Haase, Dagmar, Nina Schwarz, Michael Strohbach, Franziska Kroll, and Ralf Seppelt. 2012. “Synergies, Trade-Offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: An Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany.” Ecology and Society 17 (3). doi:10.5751/ES-04853-170322.

Hale, James, Thomas Pugh, Jon Sadler, Christopher Boyko, Julie Brown, Silvio Caputo, Maria Caserio, et al. 2015. “Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest.” Sustainability 7 (4): 4600–4624. doi:10.3390/su7044600.

Hauck, J, KJ Winkler, and JA Priess. 2015. “Reviewing Drivers of Ecosystem Change as Input for Environmental and Ecosystem Services Modelling.” Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology 5: 9–30.

Hill, Stuart B. 1998. “Redesigning Agroecosystems for Environmental Sustainability: A Deep Systems Approach.” Systems Research and Behavioral Science 15: 391–402.

Holling, C.S. 1973. “Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 4: 1–23.

Holling, CS, LH Gunderson, and D Ludwig. 2002. “In Search of a Theory of Adaptive Change.” In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems.

Hooper, D. U., F. S. Chapin, J. J. Ewel, A. Hector, P. Inchausti, S. Lavorel, J. H. Lawton, et al. 2005. “Effects of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Functioning: A Consensus of Current Knowledge.” Ecological Monographs 75 (1): 3–35. doi:10.1890/04-0922.

Jacob, Daniela, Juliane Petersen, Bastian Eggert, Antoinette Alias, Ole Bøssing Christensen, Laurens M. Bouwer, Alain Braun, et al. 2014. “EURO-CORDEX: New High-Resolution Climate Change Projections for European Impact Research.” Regional Environmental Change 14 (2): 563–78. doi:10.1007/s10113-013-0499-2.

Kalabokidis, Kostas, Theodoros Iosifides, Martha Henderson, and Barbara Morehouse. 2008. “Wildfire Policy and Use of Science in the Context of a Socio-Ecological System on the Aegean Archipelago.” Environmental Science & Policy 11 (5): 408–21. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2008.01.006.

Kankaanpää, S, and TR Carter. 2004. “Construction of European Forest Land Use Scenarios for the 21 St Century.” The Finnish Environment. Finnish Environment Institute.

Knoot, TG, LA Schulte, JC Tyndall, and BJ Palik. 2010. “The State of the System and Steps Toward Resilience of Disturbance-Dependent Oak Forests.” Ecology and Society 15 (4): 5.

Kobal, Milan, Irena Bertoncelj, Francesco Pirotti, Igor Dakskobler, and Lado Kutnar. 2015. “Using Lidar Data to Analyse Sinkhole Characteristics Relevant for Understory Vegetation under Forest Cover—Case Study of a High Karst Area in the Dinaric Mountains.” Edited by Dale A. Quattrochi. PLOS ONE 10 (3): e0122070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122070.

Kutnar, L, K Eler, and A Marinšek. 2015. “Effects of Different Silvicultural Measures on Plant Diversity – the Case of the Illyrian Fagus Sylvatica Habitat Type (Natura 2000).” iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, e1–7. doi:10.3832/ifor1587-008.

Lang, Daniel J, Arnim Wiek, Matthias Bergmann, Michael Stauffacher, Pim Martens, Peter Moll, Mark Swilling, and Christopher J Thomas. 2012. “Transdisciplinary Research in Sustainability Science: Practice, Principles, and Challenges.” Sustainability Science 7: 25–43.

Lebel, L, JM Anderies, B Campbell, S Hatfield-Dodds, TP Hughes, and J Wilson. 2006. “Governance and the Capacity to Manage Resilience in Regional Social-Ecological Systems.” Ecology and Society 11 (1): 19.

Lefèvre, François, Thomas Boivin, Aurore Bontemps, François Courbet, Hendrik Davi, Marion Durand-Gillmann, Bruno Fady, et al. 2014. “Considering Evolutionary Processes in Adaptive Forestry.” Annals of Forest Science 71 (7): 723–39. doi:10.1007/s13595-013-0272-1.

Lempert, Robert. 2013. “Scenarios That Illuminate Vulnerabilities and Robust Responses.” Climatic Change 117: 627–46.

Lescourret, Françoise, Danièle Magda, Guy Richard, Anne-Françoise Adam-Blondon, Marion Bardy, Jacques Baudry, Isabelle Doussan, et al. 2015. “A Social–ecological Approach to Managing Multiple Agro-Ecosystem Services.” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Open Issue, 14: 68–75. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2015.04.001.

Lindner, Marcus, Michael Maroschek, Sigrid Netherer, Antoine Kremer, Anna Barbati, Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo, Rupert Seidl, et al. 2010. “Climate Change Impacts, Adaptive Capacity, and Vulnerability of European Forest Ecosystems.” Forest Ecology and Management, Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate Selected papers from the conference on “Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate with Emphasis on Forest Health: A Review of Science, Policies and Practices”, Umeå, Sweden, August 25-28, 2008., 259 (4): 698–709. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.023.

Littell, Jeremy S., David L. Peterson, Constance I. Millar, and Kathy A. O’Halloran. 2012. “U.S. National Forests Adapt to Climate Change through Science-Management Partnerships.” Climatic Change 110: 269–96. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0066-0

Mahmoud, Mohammed, Yuqiong Liu, Holly Hartmann, Steven Stewart, Thorsten Wagener, Darius Semmens, Robert Stewart, et al. 2009. “A Formal Framework for Scenario Development in Support of Environmental Decision-Making.” Environmental Modelling & Software 24 (7): 798–808. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.11.010.

Mavsar, R, F Herreros, E Varela, F Gouriveau, and M Duclercq. 2014. Methods and Tools for Socio-Economic Assessment of Goods and Services Provided by Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems. Plan Bleu.

Mitchell, P.J., A.P. O’Grady, E.A. Pinkard, T.J. Brodribb, S.K. Arndt, C.J. Blackman, R.A. Duursma, et al. 2015. “An Eco-Climatic Framework for Evaluating the Resilience of Vegetation to Water Deficit.” Global Change Biology, in press.

Moss, Richard H., Jae A. Edmonds, Kathy A. Hibbard, Martin R. Manning, Steven K. Rose, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Timothy R. Carter, et al. 2010. “The next Generation of Scenarios for Climate Change Research and Assessment.” Nature 463 (7282): 747–56. doi:10.1038/nature08823.

Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie, and Hendrik Davi. 2014. “Simulating Local Adaptation to Climate of Forest Trees with a Physio-Demo-Genetics Model.” Evolutionary Applications 7 (4): 453–67. doi:10.1111/eva.12143.

Oliver, Tom H, Matthew S Heard, Nick JB Isaac, David B Roy, Deborah Procter, Felix Eigenbrod, Rob Freckelton, et al. 2015. “Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystem Functions.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30 (11): 673–84.

Ortega, Saul Torres, Nick Hanley, and Pedro Diaz Simal. 2014. “A Proposed Methodology for Prioritizing Project Effects to Include in Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Resilience, Vulnerability and Risk Perception.” Sustainability 6: 7945–66.

Ostrom, Elinor. 2009. “A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-Ecological Systems.” Science 325 (5939): 419–22. doi:10.1126/science.1172133.

O’Neill, Brian C., Elmar Kriegler, Keywan Riahi, Kristie L. Ebi, Stephane Hallegatte, Timothy R. Carter, Ritu Mathur, and Detlef P. van Vuuren. 2014. “A New Scenario Framework for Climate Change Research: The Concept of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways.” Climatic Change 122 (3): 387–400. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0905-2.

Pereira, H. M., S. Ferrier, M. Walters, G. N. Geller, R. H. G. Jongman, R. J. Scholes, M. W. Bruford, et al. 2013. “Essential Biodiversity Variables.” Science 339 (6117): 277–78. doi:10.1126/science.1229931.

Ratnam, Wickneswari, Om P. Rajora, Reiner Finkeldey, Filippos Aravanopoulos, Jean-Marc Bouvet, René E. Vaillancourt, Milton Kanashiro, Bruno Fady, Motoshi Tomita, and Christina Vinson. 2014. “Genetic Effects of Forest Management Practices: Global Synthesis and Perspectives.” Forest Ecology and Management, Global Forest Genetic Resources: Taking Stock, 333: 52–65. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.06.008.

Reiss, Julia, Jon R. Bridle, José M. Montoya, and Guy Woodward. 2009. “Emerging Horizons in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Research.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24 (9): 505–14. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.018.

Schmeller, Dirk S., Romain Julliard, Peter J. Bellingham, Monika Böhm, Neil Brummitt, Alessandro Chiarucci, Denis Couvet, et al. 2015. “Towards a Global Terrestrial Species Monitoring Program.” Journal for Nature Conservation 25: 51–57. doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2015.03.003.

Thorsen, BJ, R Mavsar, L Tyrväinen, I Prokofieva, and A Stenger. 2014. The Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services. What Science Can Tell Us 5. EFI.

van Vuuren, Detlef P., Jae Edmonds, Mikiko Kainuma, Keywan Riahi, Allison Thomson, Kathy Hibbard, George C. Hurtt, et al. 2011. “The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview.” Climatic Change 109 (1-2): 5–31. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z.

Vanclay, JK, M Haggith, and CJ Pierce Colfer. 2003. “Participation and Model-Building: Lessons Learned from the Bukittinggi Workshop.” Small-Scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy 2 (2): 135–54.

Vanclay, JK, R Prabhu, and F Sinclair. 2006. Realizing Community Futures: A Practical Guide to Harnessing Natural Resources.

Vayreda, Jordi, Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Marc Gracia, and Javier Retana. 2012. “Recent Climate Changes Interact with Stand Structure and Management to Determine Changes in Tree Carbon Stocks in Spanish Forests.” Global Change Biology 18 (3): 1028–41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02606.x.

Zurlini, G., K. Riitters, N. Zaccarelli, I. Petrosillo, K. B. Jones, and L. Rossi. 2006. “Disturbance Patterns in a Socio-Ecological System at Multiple Scales.” Ecological Complexity 3 (2): 119–28. doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2005.11.002.