Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal IN-SYLVA France ONF FCBA CIRAD CNPF OFB Université de Rouen

Home page

EFFORT Network (Ungulates effect on forest renewal)

EFFORT Network (Ungulates effect on forest renewal)
Coordination : Birieux, 01330, France; sites in the north-eastern part of France

The EFFORT network includes 3 experimental sites, all located in lowland production forests in the north-eastern half of France. Two of the sites are exclusively dedicated to monitoring interactions between ungulates and oak seedlings, and 1 site is dedicated to oak and fir (La Petite Pierre). The network has 24 exclosures, 11 of which are selective exclosures.

The network monitors seedling installation and evolution between the seed cutting and the installation of regeneration felling,, as well as the natural dynamics of the forest vegetation (oak/fir regeneration and the associated floristic community). The plots are set up in production forests where data on ungulate abundance is available. The network’s objective is to monitor the effects of ungulate browsing (and soil edaphic factors) on forest renewal (forest regeneration and plant diversity) and on the growth of seedlings up to 2 metres in height.

Within the experimental sites, study areas of 2 to 3 ha are large enough to be representative of ecosystem responses. Four 312-m² plots and 32 1-m² plots were experimental site. As far as possible (i.e. depending on which ungulate species are present), up to five treatments are tested at each experimental site: (i) with red deer, (ii) with roe deer, (iii) with wild boar, (iv) with all 3 ungulates, and (v) with no ungulates. Each treatment is repeated three times per site.

Services offer

The network provides new project-specific data, compiles experimental and monitoring data for the sites, and implements new experiments on the sites, for example for soil biodiversity (to measuremicro, meso and macro fauna). The chemical and physical parameters of the soil and plant are measured once a year with NIRS (Near Infra-red spectroscopy). Monitoring different soil properties will make it possible to detect the direct (trampling) or indirect (modification of the floristic composition) effects of ungulates early on and to indicate which soil property is most impacted.

In addition, this innovative monitoring tool makes it possible to identify the impact of ungulates on forest renewal by taking into account the soil importance and thus provide original data on the impact of local, regional or national events (extreme climatic events, global change, changes in the abundance of ungulate species, ...) and on forest ecosystem fucntioning. Research on the resilience and/or resistance of seedlings to browsing stress is of primary interest with regard to the sustainability of wood production and the definition of forest management policies.


The network is managed by a specialised engineer, 2 permanent technicians (each spending on average 10% of their time on the EFFORT network) and 2 non-permanent employees (on average 30% each). We also regularly welcome students.

Operations and data access

The average time research projects spend using the infrastructure is 3 weeks. The work includes conducting plant diversity surveys, collecting plant and soil samples, measuring seedling growth and browsing impact (consumption index and Aldous browse surveys) and pre-treating and/or analyzing samples. The network’s approach is to interact as much as possible with the user(s) to discuss all aspects of their project.

Data access and cost

Available measurements

For some sites: weather station, dendrometers, soil moisture content will be required