Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal


Uncertainty ontologies

The uncertainty variables focus on the substantive sources of expressed scientific uncertainty. We intended to capture the kind of informational problem that created the uncertainty. We were concerned only with final uncertainty, uncertainty that remained in the mind of the panel and we were not interested in flaws and problems in studies that the panel reviewed but dismissed in light of better evidence. Therefore we coded only the summaries and conclusions of the documents and, if they contained a special section called uncertainty analysis, we coded that too.

We also did not second-guess the panels or approach their work in a critical fashion. The uncertainty variables are simply descriptions of what the scientists thought remained uncertain, after all the evidence had been considered. While our ultimate unit is the sentence (or a set of adjacent sentences), the coders had to consider the wider context to code the sentence or sentences properly.

We developed and Uncertainty Ontology and a Judgment Ontology.


Uncertainty Ontology

The 28 variables follow a hierarchical ontology. They are defined by a decision tree where the coder has to code at the most specific (lowest) level possible 

Uncertainty variables

Judgment Ontology

Judgment variables describe how the panel judges the weight of the evidence and it follows more closely the language they use to do so. There are five judgment variables.

judgment ontology

Hedging: a way of indicating that experts have doubt about or a lack of total commitment to a proposition they present.

Confidence: emphatic commitment to a proposition.

Expert assumption: the expert is aware that studies or models make certain assumptions about the world. These assumptions are not directly supported by evidence, but according to the expert, this does not pose any problem.

Precaution: a way of dealing with uncertainty. Making conservative assumptions or building conclusions around “worst case scenarios” is a way of creating certainty where data and models fail to provide it.

Disagreement: Disagreement is a staple of science, but here we are interested in only disagreements that the report treats as unresolved.