Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Encyclop'Aphid : l'encyclopédie des pucerons



This family consists of 6 genera. Four of them are dealt with here: Alnus (alder), Betula (birch), Carpinus (hornbeam) and Corylus (hazel).

The trees of this family show characteristic flowers in unisexual catkins.

The most common species of Betulaceae in France are gathered together here. In the Aphid key file a simplified key based on photos is provided to help you identify aphid species.

Common alder (Alnus glutinosa)

This common species is used for consolidation of river banks but also cultivated for its wood. Alder wood has strong calorific value  good therefore as burning fuel; it is also used in cabinet making and prized for being ideal for making guitars.  

Frequent aphid

Pterocallis alni
Pterocallis maculatus

Occasional aphids

Clethrobius comes
Glyphina betulae
Stomaphis quercus

Italian alder (Alnus cordata)

The Italian alder thrives on drier ground than alder. It is used in afforestation projects geared to soil stabilization (spoil heaps, urban sites and so on).

Frequent aphids

Cryturaphis grassii

Occasional aphids

Pterocallis alni

Silver birch (Betula pendula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) harbour a whole train of similar aphids.

Birch species are planted as ornamental trees. The wood is used for making paper pulp, fibreboard and particleboard but also in joinery and cabinet making.

Frequent aphids

Betulaphis quadrituberculata
Calaphis flava
Callipterinella calliptera
Callipterinella minutissima
Callipterinella tuberculata
Euceraphis punctipennis

Occasional aphids

Calaphis betulicola
Clethrobius comes
Euceraphis betulae
Glyphina betulae
Monaphis antennata
Stomaphis quercus
Symydobius oblongus

Common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)

Hornbeam is planted as an ornamental tree (in tree tunnels). Its timber is excellent as firewood. The wood is hard and lends itself to the manufacture of specific objects (chopping blocks, butchers’ stalls, billiard cues, skittles and bowls, tool handles)

Frequent aphids 

Myzocallis carpini

Hazel (Corylus avellana)

The hazel is a hardy tree which occurs throughout France, grown for its fruit, the hazelnut. Its production for the market is centred in the Gironde and Midi-Pyrénées. The wood is used making gardening stakes, basketwork and marquetry.