Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Encyclop'Aphid : l'encyclopédie des pucerons


Direct damage

The kinds of damage inflicted directly result either from the removal of sap by the aphids or the toxicity of their saliva

Direct damage due to sap removal

This is related simply to the extraction of the plant’s nutrients. The aphids, being piercing and sucking insects, feed themselves by taking up and absorbing their host’s sap. This weakens the plant, which grows poorly, wilts and can dry out completely. The damage starts to show, depending on the stage of the plant, by diminished growth, poor fructification (aborted fruit) or a decrease in the number of seeds (yield loss). The damage will depend on the duration of the aphids’ presence and their numbers on the plant for each stage of development, also on the plant’s level of sensitivity to these insects.

Direct damage due to saliva secretions

Aphid saliva exerts an irritant, toxic action: the plant reacts to the piercing for food and to the presence of saliva, often in a specific way. It may be leaf deformation, whereby leaves fold up and wrinkle, roll up, shrivel, show an embossed effect, crinkle, thicken, blister, swell, become corrugated, with or without colour change. Sometimes shoots become stunted and shrivel, twist, the internodes are short, flowers abort and dry up, the leaves fall, fruit look dented, hardly grow in size and lack flavour. Moreover cankers appear on branches or roots, galls form on leaves or stems.

Aphis fabae, dégât sur artichaut
Aphis gossypii, dégât sur courgette
Brevicoryne brassicae : dégât sur colza
Myzus cerasi : dégât sur cerisier

Aphis fabae
damage on artichoke

Aphis gossypii
damage on courgette

Brevicoryne brassicae damage on rape 

Myzus cerasi
damage on cherry

Aulacorthum solani : dégât sur calcéolaire
Brachycaudus helichrysi : dégât sur tournesol
Dysaphis plantaginea : dégât sur pommier
Pemphigus spirothecae : pétiole spiralé sur feuille de peuplier

Aulacorthum solani
damage on Calceolara

Brachycaudus helichrysi damage on sunflower

Dysaphis plantaginea damage on apple

Pemphigus spyrothecae gall