Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal

Encyclop'Aphid : l'encyclopédie des pucerons


Aphid damage on Asteraceae

Asteraceae for large-scale production (sunflower)

On sunflower, the damage wreaked by the leafcurl plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi) is often spectacular. The presence of colonies brings crinkling of foliage). This effect is at its worst the earlier the outbreaks occur, at the 2-3 leaf-pair stages or even sooner. The yield loss can reach 4 q (400kg)/ha. The crinkling can create favourable sites for germination spores of Sclerotinia, white mould. In case of an aphid attack, an insecticide application can be justified. The products authorized for foliar treatment are effective. Spraying must be done early on, at the beginning or just before the phase of exponential population increase. The aphid colonizations occurring after floral bud release has been achieved are no longer a threat

The sunflower attracts a great many insects searching for pollen, nectar or exudates, particularly bees. The anti-aphid treatments must therefore be accomplished outside the pollen-gathering periods, preferably in the evening. All the approved products carry the message “harmless for bees”.

Asteraceae for market-garden crops (lettuce, chicory, endive, artichoke, salsify)

Several aphids attack leaves of lettuce and green salad produce: the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri), and the sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzus lactucae). These species, present throughout the cropping time, are more harmful in nurseries and at the beginning of cultivation. The lettuce root aphid (Pemphigus bursarius) and the large lettuce root aphid (Protrama flavescens) attack the roots. They produce dense colonies, greyish and covered with a white powdery substance. These colonies are located on the collar of plants and dispersion is possible throughout the root system. Alates of Pemphigus bursarius colonize the lettuce crops from June. Many other species of aphid belonging to the genus Trama live on lettuce roots or collar. They are usually difficult to identify. Among the viral diseases affecting salad produce (lettuce, chicory, endive), the lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is the most widespread. It is disseminated by numerous species of aphid including the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). On young plants, it induces a faded marbling effect, an asymmetrical blade with acute irregular serrations; a later attack induces a green colour with deformed leaves, a frail plant which does not firm up. A mixed control approach against the leaf aphids of lettuce makes weekly inspection necessary. The threshold for an aphicide operation is 10-20% of lettuce plants hosting a colony of aphids.

The aphids are the most prominent pests of artichoke crops, particularly those which attack the inflorescence because they can severely jeopardize the value of the harvest. The black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) very rapidly deforms the colonized leaves and leads to the development of sooty mould. The green plum / leafcurl plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi) is installed between bracts which redden and harden. The green artichoke-globe artichoke aphid (Capitophorus horni) and the thistle aphid (Brachycaudus cardui) are located on the lower side of the leaves but do not induce any leaf deformation. Any aphicide control technique must be performed early and strongly in order to obtain a healthy crop already before launching the harvest which, owing to the time it takes, makes the last treatment operations difficult to plan. The viral diseases currently present no serious problems for artichoke cultivation.

On salsify, the threat of damage comes from the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae), on foliage, and the root aphids (Trama spp., Protrama flavescens), which gather on the collar and upper parts of roots. The presence of the latter aphids is revealed by the whitish waxy substance certain species cover themselves with. Their colonies proliferate in June on young roots. Infestations can also occur at the end of the season but they are not so serious. Controlling the root aphids is difficult. Well conducted watering operations can help contain them as dry conditions encourage their proliferation.

A control strategy against artichoke aphids has been developed in Brittany 

A control programme run over several years led to an overall fall in artichoke aphid populations:

  • at the end of winter and the beginning of spring, such control is only envisaged at a threshold of 10 green aphids per leaf or if the black aphid is present
  • from spring to the beginning of autumn,  the integrated approach is adopted by applying the treatment threshold criterion and selection of insectides that spare the auxiliary fauna (ladybirds, chrysopes and so on)
  • at the end of autumn, control consists in avoiding the expansion of foci during winter