Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

Encyclop'Aphid : l'encyclopédie des pucerons


Ecological control

Ecological control consists of managing the cultivation environment within or in the immediate vicinity of the plot and adapting cultivation practices.

The objectives of ecological aphid control are to create conditions that limit the intensity of aphid colonization or increase the carrying capacity of natural enemies in order to increase the natural control potential of aphid populations.

Limiting the intensity of colonization

Adapting the crop calendar
The adaptation of the rhythms of cultures can make it possible to escape the phases of colonization. Thus, the damage caused by barley dwarf yellowing (BYDV) is mainly related to aphid transmission in the fall. The delay in sowing dates of winter cereals after the main autumn dispersal phase considerably reduces aphid infestation and consequently the intensity of the disease.
Use trap plants
Aphids can be diverted from the crop to be protected by offering them a more attractive alternative host plant. This strategy is particularly effective if the "trap plant" is a poor host for aphid population development. For example, a reduction in the prevalence of groundnut rosette virus (GVR) has been observed in fields where this crop is associated with beans. The effect seems to be linked to a greater attractiveness of the bean for the vector aphid, Aphis craccivora the cowpea aphid.
Acting on dispersion
Aphid adults are easily carried away by air currents whose near-ground regime is strongly modified by the landscape relief encountered. For example, windbreaks are preferred obstacles and landing areas that limit the dispersal of adults from one plot to another.

Augmenter le contrôle biologique

Green Corridor
Cultivated areas are often characterized by low ground cover density. Many crop auxiliaries are reluctant to travel long distances on bare ground. The establishment of a dense network of permanent cover (grassed strips, hedges) favours the movement of these organisms in the agricultural landscape and maintains large populations, as is the case for beetles for example. Hedges, on the other hand, are barriers to the movement of syrphids, which are aphid predatory diptera.
Habitat complementation
With alternative prey: the presence of hedgerows favours the hosting of populations of phytophagous insects that are not harmful to the crop and consequently increased activity by natural enemies. So when the aphids settle in the crops, the natural enemies in number and on the spot will be more effective.
    A diversified diet: many predatory or parasitoid species feed on aphids in the larval stage and consume pollen in the adult stage such as hoverflies and lacewings. Ladybirds also use pollen as a complementary food source. The installation of flowering strips near the cultivated plots attracts these auxiliaries and provides them with a source of protein that promotes high fertility.
    Safe havens: auxiliaries present day or night activity rhythms, interspersed with rest periods, and seasonal rhythms. The presence of dense vegetation zones such as hedges and slopes facilitates their life and survival.