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24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Encyclop'Aphid : l'encyclopédie des pucerons


Le comportement alimentaire des pucerons : des insectes furtifs

Le puceron insère ses stylets dans les tissus végétaux et les fait pénétrer entre les cellules jusqu’à atteindre le phloème. Au cours de ce transit, il réalise diverses activités et prélèvements extracellulaires, mais également des ponctions intracellulaires dans des tissus non nourriciers. Ces prélèvements, qui s’accompagnent toujours d’une injection de salive, sont déterminants dans le choix de la plante hôte, ainsi que pour la recherche du phloème. Les principaux stimuli d’identification du phloème sont le pH, la teneur en certains sucres et acides aminés, ainsi que le potentiel redox. Les organes gustatifs de l’épipharynx situés dans la cavité buccale jouent un rôle fondamental dans la capacité de l'insecte à évaluer ces stimuli.
Ces différentes phases aboutissant à la prise alimentaire des pucerons ont été étudiées par des techniques analytiques ou comportementales dédiées, comme la stylectomie (coupure des stylets pour la récolte de sève) ou l’électropénétrographie (EPG). Elles permettent, par exemple, de bien comprendre les modes de transmission des virus aux végétaux et le rôle de certaines résistances génétiques des plantes dans les mécanismes de leur colonisation par ces ravageurs.

Différents graphes d'EPG

See also

Pour en savoir plus sur l'EPG :