Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal


Our vision

Surveying the indicators of disease risk is a key activity in the prevention of diseases of humans, animals and plants. Today, for plant diseases, a wide array of probes and direct observations are used to detect pathogens and disease symptoms in cropped fields, in nearby suspected reservoirs and during commercial movement of plant materials. The results of detection are used to stop or limit disease proliferation. Timely and highly sensitive detection of pathogens and disease fosters early intervention and can lead to reductions in use of synthetic chemical pesticides.

Although current surveillance strategies can contribute to reducing input of synthetic chemical pesticides into the environment, the opportunities they create to protect their crops are, nevertheless, limited or extreme: once a pathogen is detected in or near a crop, effective control measures are based mostly on disinfection (biocides) or eradication (culling).

The goal of BEYOND is to conceive surveillance strategies that widen the window of opportunity in which to implement a variety of prophylaxis. We will develop indicators of disease risk – beyond direct observation of pathogens and disease symptoms – based on a wide range of environmental variables that are predictive of disease risk. This will be achieved by conceiving and evaluating the epidemiological predictive models of phenomena from time and space scales that are distant to the epidemics themselves. Data will include remote sensing data, information from text mining of scientific, technical and professional documents about epidemics, data from sensor networks of various abiotic variables, regional land use and landscape data, interconnectedness of regions by wind, water and transportation, historical meteorological trends and future predictions, etc.

The new indicators and the enlarged window of opportunity for prophylaxis will allow for better implementation of well-known control methods - such as biological control – and for innovations in prophylaxis. For example, some indicators will warn about the arrival routes of pathogens via wind and water or about the type of land use history that could be predisposing for certain diseases. In addition to fostering improvement in traditional surveillance, such indicators would allow for pre-emptive surveillance. They could also contribute to modifications the spatial organization of cropped regions to disconnect natural dissemination routes. (See the Indicators & Prophylaxis page for more details.)

The BEYOND project recognizes that the transition to new ways to conduct epidemiological surveillance and to implement prophylaxis will require that we help farmers and other stakeholders understand the opportunities and that solutions are co-constructed. The project will work to help stakeholders understand the options for decisions involving increasingly complex parameters and scales of space and time that extend beyond the farm and beyond a single season. Together we will explore new types of reasoning for decision-making in cases where there are multiple pathogens simultaneously and where methods of prophylaxis can be evaluated by cost-benefit metrics rather than cost-effectiveness. The project will also create training materials and courses for field technicians and university students concerning the complex vision of epidemics that will be developed in BEYOND.