Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/
You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.
In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.
It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:
Means of blocking
Analytical and performance cookies
Realytics Google Analytics Spoteffects Optimizely
Targeted advertising cookies
The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:
Social media and advertising cookies
These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.
These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.
These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).
These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.
For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by post at:
INRA 24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France
In particular, the project helped structure the scientific community that developed the successful proposal for the "CLAND Convergence Institute" (research on land management solutions for managing ecological and energy transitions).
Flagship project 5: Model integration and multi-scale modelling in SES. Coordinators: Pierre-Alain JAYET (Economie Publique), Paul LEADLEY (ESE), Benjamin LOUBET (ECOSYS) & Olivier MARTIN (GQE-Le Moulon)
This project has three objectives related to guidance for research within BASC and resolving outstanding issues in developing and applying complex models of SES:
♦ identify all the models available within BASC, their users and people responsible for their development;
♦ integrate models across disciplines by constructing a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary SES models and developing tools for coupling existing models;
♦ use novel conceptual, mathematical and computational tools to tackle the challenges of multi-scale modelling and study propagation of uncertainty in these models.
Developing dynamically-coupled SES models
One of the objectives of the project is to study SES through coupling of models describing the following components: i) climate, atmosphere and hydrosphere, ii) ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, and iii) economics, public policies and land management and use. Two spatial scales will be favored, due to current work undertaken within BASC labs: i) lanscape scale, covering a few km2, and ii) regional scale, from 10 000 km2 (≈ territorial scale) to several millions km2 (≈ national to subcontinental scales).
Models developed within BASC enable us to address innovative scientific questions which tackle the complexity of socio-ecosystems through the coupling, whether dynamic or not, of models of agricultural and non-agricultural systems functioning (eg. CERES-EGC, STICS, ORCHIDEE, CASTANEA…), climate/atmosphere/hydrosphere models (eg. MDz, MORCE-WRF, INCA, Chimère, Nitroscape...), and economics / public policies / land management and use (eg. AROPAj agroeconomic model, economotric models...). Outputs of these coupled models should help meet ecological, economic and environmental challenges.
Developping a conceptual and methodological framework to deal with complex multi-scale systems
The focus of this activity will be on highly exploratory research using a common methodological framework to quantify the resilience of SES and their components. The goal of this research is not to develop predictive models, but rather to provide a conceptual and theoretical framework that facilitates and stimulates interdisciplinary dialog and sensitises the BASC community to the importance of emergent properties and propagation of uncertainties in complex multi-scale systems.
> Engineer « Streamlining databases for the simulation of systems coupling economy, ecology, biosphere and atmosphere functioning » - Juliette Adrian – 24 months
The objective of the BASC Flagship Project 5 (FP5) was to mobilize the community of scientists within BASC and associated with BASC to develop and apply coupled climate-land systems models (also referred to as "socio-ecological systems" models) at landscape to regional scales that couple climate, air quality, ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, land use and economics. Five activities contributed to achieving, at least partly, these objectives:
1. Organization of workshops bringing modelers together from a wide range of disciplines to create the foundations for building coupled climate-land system models. Several workshops created essential interdisciplinary collaborations and laid out strategies for building coupled climate- land system models. The workshops did not lead to a new coupled climate-land system model being developed within the timeframe of the project, which was the original goal, but they did establish the foundations for a flagship project in the second phase of BASC (STIMUL) that has a concrete framework for developing such model couplings. Workshops also contributed to structuring the scientific community that put together the successful proposal for the "Institut de Convergence CLAND".
2. Creation of an on-line catalog of models developed and/or used by BASC teams. This web-based catalog — accessible on the Labex BASC web site — consists of short, structured descriptions of models used by BASC teams to simulate various components of the climate-land system interactions.
3. Demonstrations of the importance of coupling models for understanding climate-land system interactions. These studies demonstrated that i) land use can, under certain circumstances, have impacts on regional climate that are on roughly the same magnitude as those due to global climate warming, ii) ecosystem models can provide a powerful means of testing regional climate models, and iii) fully integrated models of land use and climate drivers of species distributions can substantially alter the understanding of the factors underlying presence and absence.
4. Mobilization of databases as the basis for building coupled models. A new model has been developed that couples a model agricultural offer with a simplified version of a mechanistic crop production model at the European scale. This work required the mobilization of a wide range of agricultural, environmental and economics databases supported by FP5. This model provides a means of testing the impacts of agricultural policy and management practices on farming economies and crop production for Europe.
5. Building international collaborations with other teams working on coupled land system models. BASC FP5 helped support the organization of and participation in an on-going international effort to couple global socio-economic development models (in particular the "Shared Socio- economic Pathway" scenarios being developed in support of IPCC) with models of impacts on ecosystem function and biodiversity.
==> Access the powerpoint presentation of the results of the Flagship 5 project (LabEx Days 2017)
Publications (non exhaustive)
> Ay, J. S., J. Guillemot, N. Martin-StPaul, L. Doyen and P. Leanly, 2017. "The economics of land use reveals a selection bias in tree species distribution models." Global Ecology and Biogeography 26(1): 65 77.8
> Lemordant, L., P. Gentine, M. Stefanon, P. Drobinski and S. Fatichi, 2016. "Modification of land atmosphere interactions by CO2 effects: Implications for summer dryness and heat wave amplitude." Geophysical Research Letters 43(19): 10240-10248.
> Stéfanon, M., S. Schindler, P. Drobinski, N. de Noblet-Ducoudre and F. D'Andrea, 2014. "Simulating the effect of anthropogenic vegetation land cover on heatwave temperatures over central France." Climate Research 60(2): 133-146.
> Stéfanon, M., N. K. Martin-StPaul, P. Leadley, S. Bastin, A. Dell’Aquila, P. Drobinski and C. Gallardo, 2015. "Testing climate models using an impact model: what are the advantages?" Climatic Change 131(4): 649-661.
The non-exhaustive inventory of models available in BASC with synthetic presentations are accessible here.