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Biodiversity enhancement and management for sustainable social-ecological systems
Among the products of this project, a popularised article "the evolution of the soft wheat sector in France between 1980 and 2006: what influence on cultivated diversity?" as well as a recent publication for new agri-environmental contracts.
This is the flagship project 3 of the 1st phase (2013-2016) of the LabEx BASC.
in BASC: Public Economics, Ecosys, GQE Le Moulon, BIOGER
international: Germany, Great Britain, Denmark, Belgium
non-academic partners: Coop de France - Métiers du Grain, Association Nationale de la Meunerie Française, GEVES, GNIS, Arvalis, FranceAgriMer, farmers, breeders, marsh managers, naturalists, chamber of agriculture
Profound changes in agricultural practices are necessary to strengthen the sustainability of agroecosystems. They require major changes in the socio-ecological systems (SES) in which agroecosystems are embedded. Faced with this observation, Flagship project 3 aims to explore ways of promoting biodiversity in order to increase ecosystem services within agroecosystems, to quantify the consequences of this increase, and to identify tools and systems that promote the transition of socio-ecological systems. In particular, questions arise on the relevant and effective scales of action (and their possible combination) to promote functional biodiversity with a view to increasing the ecosystem services that strengthen the sustainability of agroecosystems. Several recent reviews emphasise, but do not demonstrate, the value of mixed land use strategies (i.e. combining sparing/sharing) to reconcile biodiversity and production. Such actions require policy instruments and social organisations that promote and encourage individual adoption of new practices and collective action at the territorial level (e.g. coordination between farmers and between farmers and other land users).
From the first two scientific animation seminars, the key concepts of Project 3, as well as the underlying theoretical frameworks and research fronts, were shared within the relevant BASC community. On the basis of this information, a call for post-docs was launched, which resulted in the funding of 4 topics (described below). A third scientific animation seminar allowed the sharing of concepts, theoretical frameworks and research fronts, on a complementary topic central to the flagship project 3, while allowing the presentation of the work of post-docs in progress.
Three axes had been identified in the BASC flagship project 3 to produce advances in terms of scientific and operational knowledge.
Axis 1. Understanding and quantifying the role of biodiversity at different scales to promote the provision of ecosystem services, with a view to reducing the dependence of agroecosystems on chemical inputs and promoting the multifunctional performance of agroecosystems.
Marine Zwicke's post-doc aimed to assess the services provided by soil-related biodiversity, by studying its functioning, with a focus on the connections between the above-ground and below-ground compartments. Two trials were implemented to (i) analyse the effect of earthworm functional diversity on plant interactions (rapeseed, legumes and weeds) in an associated cover, (ii) study the role of the functional diversity of flower strips on soil invertebrate communities and ecological functions in adjacent rapeseed crops
Results: As the volume of data collected was very large, only a part relating to question 1 was evaluated at the end of the project. The direct effects of the functional diversity of earthworms on the above-ground and below-ground biomass of oilseed rape are not interpretable as such, as they result in a modification of the interactions with weeds and a modification of the growth and biomass allocation strategies of the plants. Furthermore, the effects of earthworm diversity levels seem to be mainly exerted via the properties of the gallery network created (gallery length, connectance), with for example a negative relationship between total earthworm gallery length and oilseed rape root length.
Axis 2. Designing and evaluating agroecosystems that strengthen and capitalise on functional biodiversity at different scales
Maria Pérez-Urdiales' post-doc aimed to propose management strategies for agricultural landscapes that (re)reconcile agricultural production and other ecosystem services at different spatial scales. The work was based on spatially explicit ecological-economic models representing farmers' decisions (agent-based model). These models were used to explore trade-offs between ecosystem services in grassland-crop systems. The originality of this modelling lies in the formalisation of the interactions between ecological dynamics and stakeholders' decisions at the territorial level. The performance of the simulated landscapes was then evaluated using economic approaches for efficiency analyses (skills brought to the team by María Pérez-Urdiales).
Results: The modelling approach made it possible to define the most efficient composition of landscapes for jointly providing several services. The first use of this work concerns the analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural production and biological pest control services. We have identified efficient strategies in terms of the deployment of non-cultivated habitats favourable to beneficials and phytosanitary treatments, and in particular the optimal landscape composition. Work in progress at the end of the project aims to apply these same techniques to baskets of ecosystem services (agricultural production, soil fertility, greenhouse gas balance, pollination, water pollution by inputs and suspended particles).
Axis 3. Developing and testing effective governance and public policy mechanisms and instruments to reposition agroecosystems on sustainability trajectories.
Two post-docs were implemented:
Socio-technical determinants of the evolution of wheat genetic diversity (1981-2006): Rémi Perronne's postdoc aimed to characterise the evolution of the genetic diversity of common wheat on the French territory for the period 1981 - 2006 and to identify the explanatory variables of the spatio-temporal structuring of the genetic diversity of common wheat. The evolution of diversity was studied on a departmental and annual scale using different indicators, including HT*, an integrative indicator that takes into account the spatial distribution of varieties, their genetic differences and the genetic diversity within these varieties (Bonneuil et al., 2012). The analysis of explanatory variables focused on a set of variables characterising cropping systems, the pressure of major foliar pathogens in soft wheat and organisational determinants of the commodity chain.
Results: The study of the spatial structuring of the temporal evolution (1981-2006) of the cultivated diversity indicators showed that the HT* indicator showed a significant and non-linear evolution over time, varying significantly according to the department considered. We identified departments with similar temporal trends for each of the diversity indicators. These temporal evolutions were structured in large agricultural regions along a main north-south gradient at the scale of the metropolitan territory (Perronne et al. 2017). These contrasting evolutions suggest that certain factors, structured regionally, may have influenced the diversity of common wheat in a distinct way between agricultural regions. Among the factors that may have influenced crop diversity, we identified the increase in varietal supply and its availability to farmers, market segmentation and the differentiation of variety ranges (Perronne et al 2016). We showed that the pressures of some foliar pathogens were more correlated with the level of cultivated genetic diversity, while the nature and diversity of the crop precedent had more influence on the cultivated varietal diversity, with the area cultivated in soft wheat having a high explanatory power on the level of diversity of both components while the number of cooperatives appeared to be uninformative. Finally, we suggest that agroecosystems that are more diversified at the interspecific level could favour increased intra-specific diversity (Perronne et al. in prep).
We also developed a methodological approach to characterise temporal genetic or varietal changes. This approach was applied to data on the evolution of soft wheat diversity over the period 1986-2001, and revealed an increase in genetic similarity between cultivated varieties from one year to the next over time, despite some breaks in this trend due to certain successful varieties that are genetically more distant (Perronne and Goldringer submitted). The crop rotation data of the varieties made it possible to propose a series of indicators of the commercial life cycle of the varieties. By focusing on yellow rust during the 1987-1991 epidemic period, we were able to highlight the influence of this pathogen on the rapid withdrawal of susceptible varieties intended for animal feed, substituted by a resistant variety with a comparable profile. This approach has allowed us to identify varieties with potential durable resistance to stripe rust (Perronne et al. in review).
Consultation tool for testing new agri-environmental contracts: Pierre-Yves Hardy's postdoc aimed to finalise the development of a consultation tool (BotNidVeau role-playing game) and to implement it with a panel of local stakeholders. The BotNidVeau role-playing game addresses the management of biodiversity, water levels and agricultural production in marshes. It made it possible to test a set of innovative solutions on a fictitious territory, in particular agri-environmental contracts with a collective dimension (MAE Collective, GIEE), and to analyse their consequences, both environmental (biodiversity, ecosystem services), productive and economic.
Results: The organisation of role-playing sessions and the analysis of participants' preferences during the game and debriefing phases made it possible to measure the effectiveness of agri-environmental contracts with a collective dimension (MAE Collective, GIEE) as well as their degree of acceptability. The role-playing game also made it possible to measure the learning produced in terms of collective contribution to the preservation of biodiversity. The approach thus contributed to revealing to farmers that competition and complementarity of uses are linked on the territory and that by coordinating to spatially allocate the various uses, they can improve the provision of ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation while maintaining their agricultural performance.
> Perronne, R., Goldringer, I. (2018). Application of a partitioning procedure based on Rao quadratic entropy index to characterize the temporal evolution of in situ varietal and genetic diversity of bread wheat in France over the period 1981-2006. Theor Appl Genet (2018) 131: 775. doi:10.1007/s00122-017-3034-x
> Perronne R., Diguet S., de Vallavieille-Pope C., Leconte M., Enjalbert J. (2017). A framework to characterize the commercial life cycle of crop varieties: Application to the case study of the influence of yellow rust epidemics on French bread wheat varieties. Field Crops Research 209: 159–167 doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2017.05.008**
> Perronne, R., Makowski, D., Goffaux, R., Montalent, P. & Goldringer, I. (2017). Temporal evolution of varietal, spatial and genetic diversity of bread wheat between 1980 and 2006 strongly depends upon agricultural regions in France. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 236: 12-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.11.003
Monographs, collective works
> Hedde, M, Blanchart, E, Blouin, M, Boulanger-Joimel, Yvan Capowiez, S et al.. Impact des invertébrés sur les fonctions des sols et leurs applications dans les systèmes sol-plante. Les sols et la vie souterraine : des enjeux majeurs en agroécologie, Chapitre 6, QUAE, 328 p., 2017, 978-2-7592-2651-1. ⟨hal-01607475⟩
> Perronne, R., Hannachi, M., Lemarié, S., Fugeray-Scarbel, A. & Goldringer, I. 2016. L’évolution de la filière blé tendre en France entre 1980 et 2006 : quelle influence sur la diversité cultivée ? Notes et études socio-économiques 41: 83-113.
Oral presentations with proceedings
> Zwicke M, Gardarin A, Richard-Molart C, Capowiez Y, Hedde M (2016). How does earthworm functional diversity affect rapeseed-weeds interactions? Colloque international d'Ecologie de la Société Française d'Ecologie, Marseille (France).
> Zwicke M, Gardarin A, Richard-Molart C, Capowiez Y, Hedde M (2016). Comment la diversité fonctionnelle des vers de terre modifie les interactions entre plantes dans un couvert associé ? Rencontres annuelles du réseau 'Traits Ecologiques et Biologiques des Organismes du Sol', Toulouse (France).
> Zwicke M, Gardarin A, Richard-Molart C, Hedde M (2015). Effet de la diversité fonctionnelle dans le sol sur les interactions interspécifiques végétales dans un système de cultures associées à une légumineuse. Rencontre annuelle du réseau 'Traits Ecologiques et Biologiques des Organismes du Sol', Rouen (France).
> Hedde M, Decaëns T, Blouin M, Capowiez Y, Garnier E, Joimel S, Peres G, Zwicke M, Jouquet P, Blanchart E (2015). Impact de la faune sur les fonctions des sols et leurs applications dans les systèmes sol-plante. Utilisation du potentiel biologique des sols, un atout pour la production agricole, Paris (France)
> Pérez-Urdiales M. (2016). VII Congreso Internacional de Eficiencia y Productividad (EFIUCO), Cordoba, Spain, May 19-20, 2016.
> Martinet V. (2016). FAERE 2016 (International Conference of the French Association of Environmental and Resource Economists), Bordeaux, September 8-9, 2016.
> Langlois B (2016). Agroecological Production Possibility Frontiers and the Role of Economic Incentives in the Provision of Ecosystem Services, BIOECON Conference, Cambridge, UK, October 14-16, 2016. Oral Presentation (Barbara Langlois)
> Perronne, R., Makowski, D., Schott, C., Hannachi, M., Goffaux, R., Montalent, P., Aubertot, J-N., Cellier, V., Lemarié, S., Fugeray-Scarbel, A., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., Leconte, M., Enjalbert, J., Fernandez-Manjarrés, J., Stetzler, M., Diguet, S., Poulain, N. & Goldringer, I. Structure spatio- temporelle de la diversité cultivée du blé tendre et de ses déterminants potentiels: étude de cas en France. p32-33. Petit Pois Déridé – 37ème édition, Amiens, France, 29-31 August 2016.
> Perronne, R., Makowski, D., Goffaux, R., Montalent, P. & Goldringer, I. Des évolutions contrastées de la diversité cultivée en blé tendre entre régions agricoles françaises au cours de la période 1980-2006. Ecologie des Communautés Végétales (ECOVEG 12), Brest, France, 28-30 March 2016.
> Perronne, R., Goldringer, I. & Schott. C. Relationships between in situ genetic diversity of wheat and crop sequences profiles in France between 1980 and 2006. 7ème Journée IDEEV, Gif-sur- Yvette, France, 6 October 2015 ===>
> Perronne, R., Makowski, D., Goffaux, R., Montalent, P. & Goldringer, I. L'évolution temporelle de la diversité génétique du blé est-elle structurée spatialement ? Étude de cas en France entre 1980 et 2006. Empirisme et Théorie en Écologie et Évolution, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 28-30 September 2015.
> Hardy PY, Souchère V, Dray A, David M, Sabatier R, Kernéis E, (2016). Individual vs collective in public policy design, a coordination example in the Marais Poitevin region. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, July 10-14, Toulouse, FRANCE. 1 page. Communication Orale
> Zwicke M, Hedde M, Joimel-Boulanger S, Le Foch D, Gardarin A (2016). Does plant functional diversity in flower strips promote soil invertebrate diversity and ecological functions relationships in the adjacent rapeseed crop ? Colloque international d'Ecologie de la Société Française d'Ecologie, Marseille (France).
> Zwicke M, Hedde M, Joimel-Boulanger S, Le Foch D, Gardarin A (2016). Quel est le rôle de la diversité fonctionnelle des bandes fleuries sur les communautés d'invertébrés du sol et les fonctions écologiques dans les cultures de colza ? Rencontres annuelles du réseau 'Traits Ecologiques et Biologiques des Organismes du Sol', Toulouse (France).
> Zwicke M, Gardarin A, Hedde M (2015). Joining effects and response traits in biological network to analyse the provision of goods and services by biodiversity (JENNY). Journées Annuelles du Labex BASC, Orsay (France)
> Perronne, R., Makowski, D., Schott, C., Hannachi, M., Goffaux, R., Montalent, P., Aubertot, J-N., Cellier, V., Lemarié, S., Fugeray-Scarbel, A., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., Leconte, M., Enjalbert, J., Fernandez-Manjarrés, J., Stetzler, M., Diguet, S., Poulain, N. & Goldringer, I. Relative influence of cropping systems, injury profiles and institutional determinants on the spatio-temporal structure of bread wheat diversity in France. p235. 4th YNHM, Paris, France, 7-11 February 2017.
> Perronne, R., Diguet, S., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., Leconte, M., Enjalbert, J. Influence of yellow rust over the commercial life cycle of bread wheat varieties between 1985 and 2004. p39. 8th IDEEV Day, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 18 October 2016.
> Perronne, R., Goldringer, I. Using a partitioning procedure based on Rao quadratic entropy index to analyze the temporal evolution of in situ varietal and genetic diversity: the case of bread wheat in France over the period 1981-2006. p40. 8th IDEEV Day, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 18 October 2016.
> Perronne, R., Makowski, D., Goffaux, R., Montalent, P. & Goldringer, I. Temporal evolution of varietal and genetic diversity of bread wheat between 1980 and 2006 strongly depends upon agricultural regions in France. p130. EcoSummit, Montpellier, France, 28 August - 1 September 2016.
> Perronne, R. & Goldringer, I. Une méthode d’étude de l’évolution de la diversité cultivée in situ via la décomposition de l’entropie quadratique de Rao. p46. Petit Pois Déridé – 37ème édition, Amiens, France, 29-31 August 2016.
> Perronne, R., Stetzler, M., Enjalbert, J., Cellier, V., Goldringer, I., Turenne, N. & Aubertot, J-N. Spatiotemporal evolution of pathogen stresses in bread wheat in France: study of rusts and septoria coexistence. 7ème Journée IDEEV, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 6 October 2015.
> Perronne, R., Hannachi, M., Lemarié, S., Fugeray-Scarbel, A. & Goldringer, I. 2016. L’évolution de la filière blé tendre en France entre 1980 et 2006 : quelle influence sur la diversité cultivée ? Notes et études socio-économiques 41: 83-113. Resume: "Quels ont été les principaux facteurs sociotechniques, économiques, organisationnels et réglementaires susceptibles d’avoir influencé la diversité cultivée au cours des dernières décennies ? Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d’une réflexion sur le blé tendre, espèce cultivée d’intérêt économique majeur. Nous y présentons l’évolution des principaux cadres réglementaires, de la structure et de l’organisation de la filière, ainsi que l’évolution de l’offre variétale des obtenteurs et des distributeurs. Parmi les facteurs ayant pu influencer la diversité cultivée, nous accordons une attention particulière à l’accroissement de l’offre variétale et sa disponibilité auprès des agriculteurs, à la segmentation du marché et à la différenciation des gammes de variétés. Ce premier travail constitue un préalable afin de mieux prendre en compte les bénéfices associés à la biodiversité cultivée."