Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal RMT (Mixt Technological Network) Animal Farms and Environnement French Environment and Energy Management Agency logo "animal emissions" animal emissions

Animal Emissions

Measurement of emission flux of Ammonia (NH3), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) from liquid manure (slurry) store with the technique of the tracer gas SF6



The guidelines described here is a method to measure the ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions of manure stored in an open pit using SF6 tracer gas, which requires some precautions.

The greenhouse and tracing gas concentrations are measured up and under the wind of the source. The SF6 is released using a flowmeter mass so that it mixes well with the greenhouse gas and recorded by the DAS. The concentrations in SF6, CH4, N2O and CO2 at the points of measurement, the tracing gas concentration and the flow of tracing gas at the injection points are used to calculate issue rates of CH4, CO2 and N2O of the slurry pit.


Tracer Gas Delivery System

  • Tracer gas – pure SF6 99+%
  • Mass flow meter – calibrated with the tracer gas
  • Data acquisition system (DAS) for monitoring and recording the signal output of the mass flow meter
  • Silicone tube (6x4mm) with a known permeability to SF6

Determination of SF6, CH4, N2O, CO2 concentration

  • Gas chromatograph (GC) set up wit Flame ionization detector and Electron capture detector (ECD) with appropriate chromatographic column (30m AT-1 capillary or equivalent)
  • Computerized integration software
  • Mobile laboratory to carry on equipment on measuring site, as that place is usually not available near manure stores

Sampling of air flow from slurry store

  • 2 Mast for sampling air
  • Pumps
  • Gas sample valves
  • Polyethylene (12 mm) or similar inert tubing
  • Various stainless fittings for tube connections

Meteorology conditions

  • Analogical Anemometer-Wind Vane

Guideline details

File (PDF)