Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal RMT (Mixt Technological Network) Animal Farms and Environnement French Environment and Energy Management Agency logo "animal emissions" animal emissions

Animal Emissions

Study on behalf of ADEME - 06/12/2010

Reference procedures for the measurement of emissions from animal housing and storage of animal manure - FULL REPORT

The project included three phases: first intended to study methods and choose those which would be described more precisely. A second which aimed to compare various measurement methods for manure storage and animal housing. The third phase intended to evaluate the possibilities to apply methods described in various countries. Complementary projects, associating the French actors of project ADEME and the Agricultural Colleges of Brittany (CASDAR, PITE, RMT) helped to fund other measurement works and software development.

The study of the methods showed that the emission measurement is always based on the observation of a variation of concentration (inside-outside) combined with a ventilation measurement. There are multiple situations, from a few square decimeters measuring chamber to a transmitting source of several thousands square meters. In all the cases, a great caution in the use of the results is necessary because of errors resulting from the heterogeneity of the concentrations near the source, of the possible presence of multiple entries and exits of air having each different concentration, of temporal variability due to the climate or animal evolutions, of the disturbances possibly caused by the device of measurement itself.

The experimental phase of comparison of the methods in the house on one hand, with the storage of slurry on the other hand showed important differences between measurement methods, wether it is in the house or with storage. It is thus advisable to be particularly careful in the use of results deduced from only one measurement method, not confirmed by one second independant method. By increasing the number of measurements in animal farm (temporal representativeness) and implementing complementary methods (no experimental bias), one can distinguish the animal farms strongly or slightly transmitters. Mass budget of the animal farm, deduced from measurements or references on the animals, their food and their manure can be used as parapets with emission measurements. Thus three levels of quality can be distinguished: (I) the qualitative evaluation compared to a reference; (II) intermittnt measurement with a risk of bias; (III) the measurement continuous with a risk of error minimized in so far as the device of measurement does not interfere with the processes of emission.

The evaluation of the possibilities to apply the methods showed the diversity of the national situations and the difficulty of quantifying uncertainty inherent in specific measurements in animal farm. Methodological work and the international exchanges should thus continue, parallel to house measurements and with storage in order to harmonize the methods, to standardize some of them, of going towards a certification of the emissions, while making progress the knowledge of the real animal farms emissions. the appropriation of these results by livestock industries will enable them to suggest objectives of evolution based on their possibilities of measurement of results and their economic outlooks.

The whole of the results, about fiften procedures described in French and English, is available.

Download documents