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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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AGADAPT - Adapting the water use by the agriculture sector


Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS)

CGMS Is the Crop Growth Monitoring System applied by the EC to assess crop yield, crop growth and development of various crops at (sub) regional and national level for the whole of the EU, Turkey, the Balkan region, the Maghreb region and the former Soviet Union up to the Ural. The WOFOST crop growth simulation model is the core of the CGMS system. CGMS considers three NUTS levels: 0, 1 and 2 which represent the national, regional and the sub-regional level respectively. The eight crops covered by CGMS Europe are: winter wheat, spring barley, grain maize, rape seed, sunflower, potato, sugar beet and field bean.

You can download the PDF version here

Model architecture




Model description


Main processes being represented


Process represented : crop yield, crop growth and development of various crops

Space : weather grid

Time : daily timestep


CGMS is constituted of three components:

  • Weather monitoring, dedicated to the gathering and processing of meteorological data. It produces meteorological indicators for early alert warning and crop modelling.
  • Crop growth modelling, with the purpose of producing crop status indicators ingesting weather data and static data (crop parameters, soil information, management practices) in crop modelling solutions.
  • Statistical methods, for the evaluation of results, interpreting the relationships between crop indicators and crop yield and assisting in yield forecasting.


Description of the inputs


Input Type

Variable identification and metric

Temporal and spatial scale

Default source of data in past

Source of data for future scenarios


minimum and maximum temperature


wind speed

vapour pressure

global radiation or sunshine duration

Global, 0.5 degree

WATCH Forcing Data provided for use by Land Surface Models and Global Hydrology Models

  as part of Workblock 1 of the WATCH EU Framework 6 programme (Weedon et al., 2011), 1958-2001

WATCH GCM scenario





A2 and B1




Date of sowing
 Maximum rooting depth of mature crop
 Specific stem area as function of development stage
 Maximum leaf CO2 assimilation rate as a function of development stage of the crop



respiration characteristics

partitioning of assimilates to plant organs


H.D.J van Heemst.Plant data values required for simple crop growth simulation models: review and bibliography. Simulation Report CABO-TT nr. 17, 1988.

H.D.J van Heemst.Plant data values required for simple crop growth simulation models: review and bibliography. Simulation Report CABO-TT nr. 17, 1988.


Critical soil air content for aeration

water retention

hydraulic conductivity



Based on “Staring series” Wösten, J.H.M., Pachepsky, Ya. A. and Rawls,

W.J., 2001. Pedotransfer functions: bridging

the gap between available basic soil data and

missing soil hydraulic characteristics. Journal

of Hydrology, 251, 123-150.

Based on “Staring series” Wösten, J.H.M., Pachepsky, Ya. A. and Rawls,

W.J., 2001. Pedotransfer functions: bridging

the gap between available basic soil data and

missing soil hydraulic characteristics. Journal

of Hydrology, 251, 123-150.


Description of the outputs


A number of weather and crop variables, which are aggregated to all considered NUTS-levels. These output variables serve as regional weather and yield indicators and are visualized as European weather and yield maps:

The most important variables are:

- number of days since emergence (d);

- development stage of crop (-);

- thermal time since emergence (C•d);

- dry weight of living leaves (kg•ha-1);

- dry weight of living stems (kg•ha-1);

- dry weight of living storage organs (kg•ha-1);

- total above ground production (dead and living plant organs) (kg•ha-1);

- leaf area index: (leaf area)/(soil area) (ha•ha-1);

- transpiration rate (mm•d-1);

- gross assimilation rate (kg (CH2O) •ha-1•d-1);

- maintenance respiration rate (kg (CH2O) •ha-1•d-1);

- rate of dry matter increase (kg•ha-1•d-1).

- depth of actual root zone (cm);

- soil moisture content in actual root zone (cm-3(water) / (cm-3(soil));

- available soil water in potential root zone (in and below actual root zone) (cm water);

-  amount of water available in actual root zone (cm water);

- total rainfall in the simulation period (mm);

- evaporation rate from soil or from water stored on soil surface (mm•d-1);

- surface storage (cm water);

- depth of groundwater table (cm below soil surface)

- days characterized by reduced crop growth due to oxygen shortage (d);

- days characterized by reduced crop growth due to water shortage (d).


Condition of access to the model code

The copyright holder of WOFOST Control Centre 1.8 and WOFOST 7.1.3 is Alterra, Wageningen University & Research Centre. The software can be ordered at the contact addresses and is also available at the internet ( The source code of the WOFOST 7.1.3 model (in FORTRAN77) can be obtained from the same website and is licensed under the European Union Public License. You can obtain a copy of this license at The EUPL is an open source license and meets the conditions expressed by the Free Software Foundation: Freedom to use or run it for any purpose and any number of users; Freedom to obtain the Source Code (in order to study how the software works); Freedom to share, to redistribute copies of the software; Freedom to modify, adapt, improve the software according to specific needs and to share these modifications.

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the EUPL is distributed on an "AS IS" basis, * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.



Savin, I., Boogaard, H., Diepen, C. van, Nègre, T. (eds), 2004. CGMS version 8.0. User Manual and Technical Documentation. European Communities (ISBN 92-894-8339-3).


Supit, I., Hooijer, A.A., Van Diepen, C.A., Edts, 1994 (reprint 1996). System description of the WOFOST 6.0 crop simulation model implemented in CGMS. Volume 1: Theory and Algorithms. EUR Publication N° 15959 EN of theOffice for Official Publications of the EC. Luxembourg, 146 pp.

WOFOST Presentation (PDF)

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