Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal logo meteo france logo upv logo juelich Logo EIT LSCE CEA logo alterra Logo  TNO Logo  SUEZ

AGADAPT - Adapting the water use by the agriculture sector

Application of irrigation recommandation to Citrus Orchard at Picassent site

An operational data assimilation framework was set-up to combine model predictions and soil moisture measurements in an optimal way for characterizing the soil water status and using this, in combination with meteorological ensemble predictions, to optimize irrigation amounts for the next days. This data assimilation framework was operationally tested in 2013.

Soil moisture contents were measured by FDR probes at 10 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm and 70 cm depth at various field plots for the experimental site near Picassent, Valencia, Spain. These soil moisture data were assimilated by the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) into the Community Land Model (CLM) to improve the estimation of the complete soil moisture profile (all ten layers). The measured soil moisture was assimilated five times per day. In these data assimilation experiments, both atmospheric forcings and soil properties were considered uncertain. The uncertain model forcings were taken from an ensemble of weather forecasts from the ECMWF, and delivered in this project by Meteo France for the particular grid point under consideration. The improved soil moisture profile was used to calculate the irrigation requirement taking into account the root distribution of the citrus trees in the subsurface. The estimated irrigation amount was scheduled operationally during the irrigation period of 2013.

In irrigation districts where water is delivered by pressurized networks, a way of reducing the energy consumption is to schedule the operation of hydrants or intakes (demand network nodes) that compose sectors in such a way that the required pumping head is lower and the pump efficiency is higher. A sector is a group of demand nodes that operates at the same time. To apply this technique, a calibrated mathematical network is required. A method has been developed that allows scheduling the intake operation just the required time to fulfill the crop water requirements with the minimum energy consumption. Crop water requirements are calculated and irrigation time is assigned to each irrigation intake according to their flow rates. Then, the simulation code, implemented in the HuraGIS tool decides when these intakes have to operate. The scheduled irrigation guarantees that the energy consumption is minimum. It was tested in the Picassent irrigation district achieving a saving of 36.3% compared to actual scenarios.

The total amount of irrigated water for the six irrigation plots from July to September in 2013 was compared for the different sites. AGADAPT suggested smaller irrigation amounts than according the traditional irrigation method. 23% amount of water (averaged over two irrigation plots) was saved (compared with the FAO method) from July to September in 2013. The traditional irrigation method is based on the FAO calculation, and the irrigation results show that the farmers tended to increase irrigation above the recommended amount. The reduced irrigation did not result in soil water decrease. The measured soil moisture at the surface layer (10 cm) and root zone layer (50 cm) was kept above 30% constantly. This means the suggested irrigation amount was enough to compensate soil moisture loss related to uptake by citrus and infiltration. The stem water potential (SWP) is a good indicator of plant water stress. Nine SWP measurements were collected during the irrigation period and twelve samples were used to calculate the mean of SWP for each measurement time. High SWP values indicate high water stress of citrus. Stem water potential measurements for the main irrigation period for two AGADAPT plots (01.09.08 and 01.20.01) were compared with two traditional plots (01.09.07 and 01.20.03). The AGADAPT irrigation method did not result in water stress compared to the measured SWP from traditional irrigation plots. Therefore, the SWP measurements were consistent with the soil moisture measurements. After the harvest season, the citrus production for one AGADAPT irrigation plot and two traditional irrigation plot were collected for comparison. The production of two traditional plots (01.09.07 and 01.20.03) were 3.36 Kg/m2 and 1.71 Kg/m2. The production of the AGADAPT plot (01.20.01) was 2.84 Kg/m2. The AGADAPT plot shows a production which is in between the two plots irrigated traditionally. More experiments with more sites would be needed for statistically sound conclusions. However, it can be stated that there is no indication that less irrigation water as applied for the AGADAPT plots, resulted in less production.

PDF version

Read more